Splash Screen. Chapter Introduction Section 1: Australia and New Zealand Section 2: Oceania Section 3: Antarctica Summary. Chapter Menu.
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Human-Environment Interaction The lands of Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica range from tiny islands to massive continents. Some places in this region have environments too harsh for people to live there permanently. Others have attractive climates but few resources. How might people survive in a land with limited resources?Chapter Intro 1
To keep Australia’s people, environment, and livestock free of disease and pests, the government has enacted strict quarantine laws. Quarantine means holding anyone or anything until health or cleanliness can be proven. Australia inspects incoming people, baggage, and cargo at its airports, seaports, international mail centers, and shipping centers. More than 10,000 ships are inspected every year, as are a million and a half pieces of mail.Section 1
The Aborigines were the first people to settle Australia, but they have suffered discrimination from white Australians for years.
Recently the government has worked toward improvements in education, job pay, poverty solutions, and health care, but the problems still exist.Section 1
Australia’s dry climate and poor soils limit farming, but irrigation allows farmers to grow grains, sugarcane, cotton, fruits, and vegetables.
Australia is a world leader in the export of wool, lamb, beef, and cattle hides.
Many of the sheep raised in the country are merinos, a breed of sheep known for its fine wool.Section 1
The Maori, the first people to settle New Zealand, are the largest non-European group, forming about 15 percent of the population.
In 1840 Maori leaders signed the Treaty of Waitangi with Great Britain, which acknowledged British rule over the islands and included the promise of the British to protect Maori land rights.Section 1
In the island country of Palau there is a small lake that is home to between 10 and 20 million jellyfish. They range from marble-sized to larger than a softball. This habitat has been invaded by the non-native sea anemone. Scientists working to control the anemone believe the first one was carried in by a tourist and that if the anemone population grows, the jellyfish population will be endangered.Section 2
The Federal States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands have phosphate, a mineral salt used to make fertilizer, but they lack the money to mine the resource.
Kiribati’s phosphate deposits are gone, and Nauru’s are almost gone.
Kiribati is dependent on foreign aid, but Nauru is investing abroad and trying to develop service industries.Section 2
Samoa has tried to prevent deforestation by establishing a program to replant trees as they are cut down.
Tonga grows vanilla beans and coconuts as cash crops.
Other import industries in Polynesia include canning tuna and issuing colorful postage stamps for collectors.Section 2
In the late 1940s, the United States and other countries tested nuclear weapons in the Pacific area, exposing residents of nearby islands to radiation that caused deaths and illnesses and poisoned the land, water, and vegetation.
The United States has provided millions of dollars to help Marshall Islanders affected by the atomic tests.Section 2
United States aid has been used to clean up the environment in testing areas.
Still, by the late 1900s, islanders could not return to Bikini Atoll, where the United States began nuclear testing in 1946.
France planned nuclear tests on an atoll in French Polynesia but cancelled those tests as a result of international protests.Section 2
All living things are dependent upon one another and their surroundings for survival.Section 3-Main Idea
Each year in December, runners from around the world meet for the 26.2 mile (42.2 km) Antarctic Ice Marathon. Temperatures vary, but the average is from 14°F to –4°F (–10° to –20°C), and officials caution that the distance plus the cold equal a difficult run—but people keep coming. They love the challenge and the beauty of Antarctica!Section 3
Geologists have found the remains of trees from millions of years ago.
They believe these findings show that Antarctica was once joined to Africa and South America.
Climatologists study samples of ice from deep beneath the surface of the ice layer, hoping to learn about the climate from thousands of years ago.Section 3
Higher temperatures from global warming could lead to the loss of ice in and near Antarctica, resulting in the loss of plants that live on that ice.
These plants form the diet of krill, which is the main food source for many larger species of animals.
Less plant life means less krill, and less krill threatens the survival of other animals.Section 3
A gas called ozone forms a layer around the Earth in the atmosphere and protects the Earth from certain harmful rays of the sun.
In the 1980s, scientists noticed a “hole” in the ozone layer above Antarctica, caused, they believe, by human-made chemicals reacting with the sun’s rays.
The Ozone HoleSection 3
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