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Splash Screen. Chapter Introduction Section 1: Australia and New Zealand Section 2: Oceania Section 3: Antarctica Summary. Chapter Menu.

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Presentation Transcript
chapter menu

Chapter Introduction

Section 1:Australia and New Zealand

Section 2:Oceania

Section 3:Antarctica

Summary

Chapter Menu
chapter intro 1

Human-Environment Interaction The lands of Australia, Oceania, and Antarctica range from tiny islands to massive continents. Some places in this region have environments too harsh for people to live there permanently. Others have attractive climates but few resources. How might people survive in a land with limited resources?

Chapter Intro 1
chapter intro 2

Section 1: Australia and New Zealand

People’s actions can change the physical environment. Extensive farming and ranching, along with other agricultural and economic practices, have affected Australia and New Zealand.

Chapter Intro 2
chapter intro 21

Section 2: Oceania

Patterns of economic activities result in global interdependence. Many of Oceania’s islands have limited resources and depend on tourism or aid from other countries to support their economies.

Chapter Intro 2
chapter intro 22

Section 3: Antarctica

All living things are dependent upon one another and their surroundings for survival. Scientists fear that human activity may be harming plant and animal life in Antarctica.

Chapter Intro 2
section 1 key terms

Content Vocabulary

lawsuit

merino

kiwifruit

Academic Vocabulary

consist

acknowledge

Section 1-Key Terms
section 1 polling question
A

B

C

Do you think the Aborigines have a right to claim land that “belongs to their people”?

A. Yes

B. No

C.Maybe

Section 1-Polling Question
section 1

To keep Australia’s people, environment, and livestock free of disease and pests, the government has enacted strict quarantine laws. Quarantine means holding anyone or anything until health or cleanliness can be proven. Australia inspects incoming people, baggage, and cargo at its airports, seaports, international mail centers, and shipping centers. More than 10,000 ships are inspected every year, as are a million and a half pieces of mail.

Section 1
section 11

Australia

Australia has a strong economy, but economic growth has created serious challenges for its environment.

Section 1
section 12

Australia (cont.)

Australia has a huge land area but only 20.6 million people.

Needing skilled workers to develop resources and build its economy, the government has encouraged immigration.

Section 1
section 13

Australia (cont.)

Most Australians are descended from the first immigrants who were from the British Isles and Europe.

Today, immigrants come from Asia, South Africa, Latin America, and Oceania.

Section 1
section 14

Australia (cont.)

The Aborigines were the first people to settle Australia, but they have suffered discrimination from white Australians for years.

Recently the government has worked toward improvements in education, job pay, poverty solutions, and health care, but the problems still exist.

Section 1
section 15

Australia (cont.)

In the late 1980s, a group of Aborigines filed a lawsuitto block mining on land they said belonged to their people, and in 1992 a court agreed.

Later court decisions gave Aborigines control over land that was being used for sheep ranches and other economic activities.

Section 1
section 16

Australia (cont.)

Other Australians are now worried that they might lose land to such Aborigine claims, and the government is trying to find a balance.

Section 1
section 17

Australia (cont.)

Australia’s prosperous economy is partly based on the export of mineral and energy resources such as iron ore, nickel, zinc, bauxite, gold, diamonds, coal, oil, and natural gas to China and Japan.

Australia and Oceania: GDP per Person for Selected Countries

Section 1
section 18

Australia (cont.)

Australia’s dry climate and poor soils limit farming, but irrigation allows farmers to grow grains, sugarcane, cotton, fruits, and vegetables.

Australia is a world leader in the export of wool, lamb, beef, and cattle hides.

Many of the sheep raised in the country are merinos, a breed of sheep known for its fine wool.

Section 1
section 19

Australia (cont.)

Australian factories produce processed foods, transportation equipment, cloth, and chemicals.

High-technology industries, service industries, and tourism are also important to the economy.

Section 1
section 110

Australia (cont.)

Since the 1980s, Australians have been working to preserve their land, but some people fear these efforts are too extreme and will hurt the economy.

Section 1
section 111
A

B

C

D

The main agricultural activity in Australia is

A.the raising of livestock

B.the growing of sugarcane

C.the growing of cotton

D.the mining of iron ore

Section 1
section 112

New Zealand

New Zealand is a small country with a growing economy that is based on trade.

Section 1
section 113

New Zealand (cont.)

The population of New Zealand consists largely of the descendants of European, especially British and Irish, immigrants.

There are also people of German, Scandinavian, Croatian, and Dutch backgrounds.

Section 1
section 114

New Zealand (cont.)

The Maori, the first people to settle New Zealand, are the largest non-European group, forming about 15 percent of the population.

In 1840 Maori leaders signed the Treaty of Waitangi with Great Britain, which acknowledged British rule over the islands and included the promise of the British to protect Maori land rights.

Section 1
section 115

New Zealand (cont.)

Some Maori have charged that since 1840, Europeans unfairly took land from them.

They use the Treaty of Waitangi to win lawsuits recognizing their right to land.

Some people of European descent fear these lawsuits will cause them to lose their land and livelihood.

Section 1
section 116

New Zealand (cont.)

The population growth rate among Pacific Islanders, East Asians, Southeast Asians, and the Maori in New Zealand is high, but the growth rate among whites is low, indicating a future change in the ethnic balance of the country.

Section 1
section 117

New Zealand (cont.)

New Zealand’s export of wool and meat has long been a major factor in the country’s economy.

The country’s cattle industry produces butter, cheese, and meat for export.

Section 1
section 118

New Zealand (cont.)

Expanding businesses in New Zealand include the production of wood and paper products, and farming and winemaking.

Apples, grapes, kiwifruit, barley, wheat, and corn are the major crops.

Service industries and tourism also play large roles in the economy.

Section 1
section 119

New Zealand (cont.)

New Zealand’s trade with other countries is an important part of its economy.

Australia is still an important trading partner, but the United Kingdom has become a lesser partner as trade with the United States and countries in East Asia has increased.

Section 1
section 120
A

B

C

D

Why is trade with other countries such a major part of New Zealand’s economy?

A.Because the rate of population growth is increasing

B.Because it is a relatively small country

C.Because the country’s resources are dwindling

D.All of the above

Section 1
section 2 key terms

Content Vocabulary

copra

lingua franca

fa’a Samoa

habitat

Academic Vocabulary

extract

establish

Section 2-Key Terms
section 2 polling question
A

B

C

D

Why do you think American influence remains strong in Micronesia?

A. American tourists are plentiful.

B. American music is extremely popular.

C.U.S. military bases are in the area.

D. Americans provide government aid.

Section 2-Polling Question
section 2

In the island country of Palau there is a small lake that is home to between 10 and 20 million jellyfish. They range from marble-sized to larger than a softball. This habitat has been invaded by the non-native sea anemone. Scientists working to control the anemone believe the first one was carried in by a tourist and that if the anemone population grows, the jellyfish population will be endangered.

Section 2
section 21

Melanesia

Although small in population, Melanesia includes diverse groups of people.

Section 2
section 22

Melanesia (cont.)

Papua New Guinea occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and several hundred smaller islands.

Nearly all of its people belong to different Papuan or Melanesian ethnic groups, which are closely related, and they speak more than 700 languages.

Section 2
section 23

Melanesia (cont.)

Many people in Papua New Guinea live by subsistence farming.

Others work on plantations that grow coffee, oil palm trees, cacao trees, and coconut palms.

Coconut oil from copra, the meat from dried coconuts, is used to make margarine, soap, and other products.

Section 2
section 24

Melanesia (cont.)

Copra and other plantation products are produced for export, so food must be imported for city dwellers.

Papua New Guinea also supports its economy by extracting oil, gold, copper, silver, iron, and zinc from deposits in the land and ocean floors.

Section 2
section 25

Melanesia (cont.)

On the other islands of Melanesia, most of the people belong to different Melanesian ethnic groups.

In the Fiji Islands, the population is about evenly divided between Melanesians and South Asians.

Section 2
section 26

Melanesia (cont.)

The struggle between Melanesians and South Asians for control of Fiji’s government has made foreign companies afraid to invest there and has kept tourists away. Both have hurt Fiji’s economy.

Section 2
section 27

Melanesia (cont.)

Most people in the Solomon Islands are ethnic Melanesians who live by subsistence farming and fishing. Most follow traditional ways.

Section 2
section 28

Melanesia (cont.)

Most people in Vanuatu are farmers, although tourism is increasing.

More than 100 Melanesian languages are spoken in Vanuatu, but many people use Bislama as the lingua franca, or a common language used for communication and trade.

Section 2
section 29

Melanesia (cont.)

New Caledonia is a French-owned island territory.

Rich nickel deposits provide the country’s chief export.

About one-third of the people are of French descent, and they control the economy.

Some of New Caledonia’s Melanesians want independence from France.

Section 2
section 210
A

B

C

D

Which island in the region is owned by France?

A.Vanuatu

B.Papua New Guinea

C.Fiji

D.New Caledonia

Section 2
section 211

Micronesia and Polynesia

Many people in Micronesia and Polynesia practice subsistence farming.

Section 2
section 212

Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.)

Micronesia and Polynesia are made up of high volcanic islands and low, ring-shaped atolls.

Since the 1970s, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, Palau, Nauru, and Kiribati have become independent.

Section 2
section 213

Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.)

People on the volcanic and fertile high islands practice subsistence farming, growing yams, sweet potatoes, and cassava.

People on the low islands fish and grow breadfruit, taro, and bananas.

Poor soil limits farm production, so most food is imported.

Section 2
section 214

Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.)

The Federal States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands have phosphate, a mineral salt used to make fertilizer, but they lack the money to mine the resource.

Kiribati’s phosphate deposits are gone, and Nauru’s are almost gone.

Kiribati is dependent on foreign aid, but Nauru is investing abroad and trying to develop service industries.

Section 2
section 215

Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.)

Polynesia is a vast island area that lies southeast of Micronesia.

Today, after a period of European rule, some Polynesian islands, such as Samoa and Tonga, are independent.

Others, such as French Polynesia, are still controlled by European countries.

Section 2
section 216

Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.)

Many people in Polynesia practice subsistence farming.

Several island economies depend on foreign aid.

Samoa and Tonga have built strong tourist industries, and both also earn money by exporting timber.

Section 2
section 217

Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.)

Samoa has tried to prevent deforestation by establishing a program to replant trees as they are cut down.

Tonga grows vanilla beans and coconuts as cash crops.

Other import industries in Polynesia include canning tuna and issuing colorful postage stamps for collectors.

Section 2
section 218

Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.)

Samoans call their way of life the fa’a Samoa, which emphasizes living in harmony with the community and the land.

The people of Samoa are known for their music, dance, handicrafts, and tattoos.

Section 2
section 219

Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.)

In the late 1940s, the United States and other countries tested nuclear weapons in the Pacific area, exposing residents of nearby islands to radiation that caused deaths and illnesses and poisoned the land, water, and vegetation.

The United States has provided millions of dollars to help Marshall Islanders affected by the atomic tests.

Section 2
section 220

Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.)

United States aid has been used to clean up the environment in testing areas.

Still, by the late 1900s, islanders could not return to Bikini Atoll, where the United States began nuclear testing in 1946.

France planned nuclear tests on an atoll in French Polynesia but cancelled those tests as a result of international protests.

Section 2
section 221

Micronesia and Polynesia (cont.)

Phosphate mining also has caused environmental damage.

About 80 percent of Nauru cannot support human life, and native birds are threatened by the loss of their habitats.

Nauru is now seeking international aid to restore its land.

Section 2
section 222
A

B

C

D

What is the largest cause of environmental damage in this region?

A.Deforestation

B.Nuclear testing

C.Phosphate mining

D.Volcanic activity

Section 2
section 3 key terms

Content Vocabulary

extinction

krill

ozone

Academic Vocabulary

research

specify

Section 3-Key Terms
section 3 polling question
A

B

C

Do you think Antarctica should be preserved for scientific research as stated in the Antarctic Treaty of 1959?

A. Strongly agree

B. Somewhat agree

C.Disagree

Section 3-Polling Question
section 3

Each year in December, runners from around the world meet for the 26.2 mile (42.2 km) Antarctic Ice Marathon. Temperatures vary, but the average is from 14°F to –4°F (–10° to –20°C), and officials caution that the distance plus the cold equal a difficult run—but people keep coming. They love the challenge and the beauty of Antarctica!

Section 3
section 31

International Cooperation

Antarctica is a center of scientific research.

Section 3
section 32

International Cooperation (cont.)

After Antarctica was first sighted in the 1820s, scientists and seal hunters visited parts of the coasts, but the interior remained unexplored until the early 1900s.

Explorers reached the South Pole in 1911.

Section 3
section 33

International Cooperation (cont.)

Hoping to find mineral resources, several countries claimed territory in Antarctica, but many other countries, including the United States, opposed the claims.

During the 1950s, several countries began to cooperate on scientific research in Antarctica.

Section 3
section 34

International Cooperation (cont.)

Twelve countries signed the Antarctic Treaty in 1959.

This agreement stated that Antarctica should be used only for peaceful, scientific purposes.

It specified that Antarctica could not be used for weapons testing or any other military use.

Section 3
section 35

International Cooperation (cont.)

Since 1959, forty-five countries have signed the Antarctic Treaty.

These countries have agreed to forbid mining in Antarctica and to protect its environment.

Section 3
section 36

International Cooperation (cont.)

Geologists have found the remains of trees from millions of years ago.

They believe these findings show that Antarctica was once joined to Africa and South America.

Climatologists study samples of ice from deep beneath the surface of the ice layer, hoping to learn about the climate from thousands of years ago.

Section 3
section 37
A

B

C

D

What proof have scientists found that Antarctica might have been joined to Africa and South America?

A.Ice samples that reveal climate changes in the region

B.The remains of trees

C.Both A and B

D.None of the above

Section 3
section 38

Antarctica’s Environment

Climate changes are affecting Antarctica’s environment.

Section 3
section 39

Antarctica’s Environment (cont.)

Penguins, seals, fish, whales, and many kinds of flying birds live in or near the seas surrounding Antarctica.

Larger animals, such as whales and seals, were once hunted nearly to extinction, or disappearance from the Earth.

Section 3
section 310

Antarctica’s Environment (cont.)

Higher temperatures from global warming could lead to the loss of ice in and near Antarctica, resulting in the loss of plants that live on that ice.

These plants form the diet of krill, which is the main food source for many larger species of animals.

Less plant life means less krill, and less krill threatens the survival of other animals.

Section 3
section 311

Antarctica’s Environment (cont.)

Scientists warn that an Antarctic ice melt could raise sea levels around the world, probably flooding low islands in Oceania and highly populated coastal cities.

Section 3
section 312

Antarctica’s Environment (cont.)

A gas called ozone forms a layer around the Earth in the atmosphere and protects the Earth from certain harmful rays of the sun.

In the 1980s, scientists noticed a “hole” in the ozone layer above Antarctica, caused, they believe, by human-made chemicals reacting with the sun’s rays.

The Ozone Hole

Section 3
section 313
A

B

C

D

What do scientists believe caused the “hole” in the ozone layer?

A.Global warming

B.Off-shore drilling

C.The extinction of species

D.Human-made chemicals reacting with the sun’s rays

Section 3
slide78

Australia

Australia’s largely European population is becoming more diverse.

The Aborigines still face problems in Australian society.

Australia has rich minerals and productive farms and ranches.

VS 1
slide79

New Zealand

New Zealand’s population is mostly of European background.

The Maori have laid claims to lands in New Zealand.

New Zealand’s agricultural economy depends on trade.

VS 2
slide80

Melanesia

Papua New Guinea is Oceania’s largest and most populous country.

Most people in Melanesia practice subsistence farming.

People in many areas of Melanesia follow traditional lifestyles.

VS 3
slide81

Micronesia and Polynesia

Many islands in Micronesia have close ties to the United States.

Low-lying islands in Micronesia have to import food.

Polynesian countries have built strong tourist industries.

VS 4
slide82

Antarctica

Many nations have agreed to set aside Antarctica for peaceful purposes.

Antarctica is a major center of scientific research.

Small animals and plants live in Antarctica. Larger animals thrive in nearby coastal waters.

A number of problems threaten Antarctica’s fragile environment.

VS 5
vocab1

lawsuit

legal action in which people ask for relief from some damage done to them by someone else

Vocab1
vocab2

merino

breed of sheep known for especially fine wool

Vocab2
vocab3

kiwifruit

small, fuzzy, brownish-colored fruit with bright green flesh

Vocab3
vocab4

consist

made up of

Vocab4
vocab6

copra

dried coconut meat

Vocab6
vocab7

lingua franca

common language used for communication and trade

Vocab7
vocab8

fa’a Samoa

Samoan way of life, which puts a heavy emphasis on living in harmony with the community and the land

Vocab8
vocab9

habitat

type of environment in which a particular animal species lives

Vocab9
vocab12

extinction

complete disappearance from the Earth of a particular kind of plant or animal

Vocab12
vocab13

krill

tiny shrimplike sea creatures that provide food to whales and many other sea animals

Vocab13
vocab14

ozone

gas that forms a layer around the Earth in the atmosphere; it blocks out many of the most harmful rays from the sun

Vocab14
vocab15

research

work done by scientists or scholars

Vocab15
vocab16

specify

make clear

Vocab16
slide106

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