THE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY OF ALBERT BANDURA. By Heidi Olson and Tracy Scott. Reflection. Using the polling tool: Select the best answer to this question: How did you learn to cook? A. from watching someone (Mom, Dad, Grandma?)
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
By Heidi Olson and Tracy Scott
Using the polling tool: Select the best answer to this question:
How did you learn to cook?
A. from watching someone (Mom, Dad, Grandma?)
B. from watching Hell's Kitchen, Emeril, or Rachel Ray, or
__________ (input name here) on TV
C. I don't know how to cook
Using the text tool, type your response on the whiteboard:
Think about a product you (or someone you know) have (has) recently purchased based on a TV commercial. Write a quick thought about what influenced you to buy the product. Or if the purchase was made by someone else - what to you think influenced them to purchase the product?
General principles of social learning follows:
1. People can learn by observing the behavior of others and the outcomes of those behaviors (Abbott).
In his famous "Bobo doll" studies, Bandura demonstrated that children learn and imitate behaviors they have observed in other people. The children in Bandura's studies observed an adult acting violently towards a Bobo doll. When the children were later allowed to play in a room with the doll, they began to imitate the aggressive actions they had previously observed (Van Wagner).
2. Learning can occur without a change in behavior. Behaviorists say that learning has to be represented by a permanent change in behavior, in contrast social learning theorists say that because people can learn through observation alone, their learning may not necessarily be shown in their performance. Learning may or may not result in a behavior change (Abbott).
3. Cognition plays a role in learning. Over the last 30 years social learning theory has become increasingly cognitive in its interpretation of human learning. Awareness and expectations of future reinforcements or punishments can have a major effect on the behaviors that people exhibit (Abbott).
4. Social learning theory can be considered a bridge or a transition between behaviorist learning theories and cognitive learning theories (Abbott).
The Component Processes Underlying Observational Learning are:
1. Attention - In order to learn, you need to be paying attention.
2. Retention - The ability to store information is an important part of the learning process.
3. Motor Reproduction - Once you have paid attention to the model and retained the information, it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed.
4. Motivation -In order for for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled (Van Wagner).
Cognitive Factors in Social Learning
Social learning theory has cognitive factors as well as behaviorist factors (actually operant factors).
1. Learning without performance: Bandura makes a distinction between learning through observation and the actual imitation of what has been learned.
2. Cognitive processing during learning: Social learning theorists contend that attention is a critical factor in learning (Abbott).
3. Expectations: As a result of being reinforced, people form expectations about the consequences that future behaviors are likely to bring. They expect certain behaviors to bring reinforcements and others to bring punishment. The learner needs to be aware however, of the response reinforcements and response punishment. Reinforcement increases a response only when the learner is aware of that connection.
4. Reciprocal causation: Bandura proposed that behavior can influence both the environment and the person. In fact each of these three variables, the person, the behavior, and the environment can have an influence on each other.
5. Modeling: There are different types of models. There is the live model, a verbal instructional model and the symbolic model. (Abbott).
Bandura identified the characteristics of the following models of observational learning:
A live model involves an actual demonstration or acting out a behavior.
A verbal instructional model involves descriptions and explanations of behavior.
A symbolic model, which real of fictional characters displaying behaviors in books, films, television programs or online media (Van Wagner).
How the environment reinforces and punishes modeling:
People are often reinforced for modeling the behavior of others. Bandura suggested that the environmentalso reinforces modeling. This is in several possible ways:
1.The observer is reinforced by the model. For example a student who changes dress to fit in with a certain group of students has a strong likelihood of being accepted and thus reinforced by that group (Abbott).
2. The observer is reinforced by a third person. The observer might be modeling the actions of someone else, for example, an outstanding class leader or student. The teacher notices this and compliments and praises the observer for modeling such behavior thus reinforcing that behavior.
3. The imitated behavior itself leads to reinforcing consequences. Many behaviors that we learn from others produce satisfying or reinforcing results.
4. Consequences of the model’s behavior affect the observers behavior vicariously. This is known as vicarious reinforcement. This is where in the model is reinforced for a response and then the observer shows an increase in that same response (Abbott).
A guy named Al playing a bandura
A guy named Al(bert) Bandura
Who is Albert Bandura?http://www.xtimeline.com/timeline/Albert-Bandura
used with permission from
Courtesy of CDE - UAF
Social Learning Today:
"The social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of a continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral and environmental determinants."
Sacha Chua: "A Teacher's guide to Web 2.0 at school [illustrated]"
Abbott, Lynda (nd). Social Learning Theory. The University of Texas at Austin, The College of Education, Retrieved September 13, 2009 from http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~lynda_abbott/Social.html
Boeree, Dr. C. George (2006). Albert Bandura, 1925-present. Shippenburg University. Retrieved September 13, 2009 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html
Chih-Hsiung Tu (2000). On-line learning migration: from social learning theory to social presence theory in a CMC environment [Electronic version]. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, Vol 23, Issue 1, Jan 2000, pp 27-37
doccochs. (February 6, 2008). Theory Master Theater – Bandura Social Learning. Retrieved September 20, 2009, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=byhLPxT_FJQ
Hill, Janette R., Song, Liyan and West, Richard E. (2009). Social Learning Theory and Web-Based Learning Environments: A Review of Research and Discussion of Implications. American Journal of Distance Education, 23:2, pp 88-103.
Moore, Amanda (May 1999). Albert Bandura. Muskinghum College, Department of Psychology. Retrieved September 13, 2009, from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/bandura.htm
no author (nd). Chapter 31 Social Learning Theory of Albert Bandura. McGraw Hill Higher Education. Retrieved September 13, 2009 from http://www.mhhe.com/socscience/comm/bandur-s.mhtml
no author (2009). Social Cognitive Theory goes Global [Electronic version]. The Psychologist, June 2009, Vol 22, No. 6. Retrieved September 16 2009 from http://issuu.com/thepsychologist/docs/0609
no author (nd). Social Learning Theory (A. Bandura). Retrieved September 17, 2009 from http://tip.psychology.org/bandura.html
Pajares, F. (2004). Albert Bandura: Biographical sketch. Emory University, Division of Educational Studies. Retrieved September 20, 2009, from http://des.emory.edu/mfp/bandurabio.html
Patsula, Peter J. (1999). Applying Learning Theories to Online Instructional Design. Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul. Retrieved September 13, 2009 from http://patsula.com/usefo/webbasedlearning/tutorial1/learning_theories_full_version.html
Smith, Michele, and Zane L. Berge (2009). Social Learning Theory in Second Life. [Electronic Version]. MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, Vol. 5, No. 2, June 2009. Retrieved September 13, 2009, from http://jolt.merlot.org/vol5no2/berge_0609.htm
Svinicki, Marila (nd). Inclass activity on Social Learning Theory. The University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved September 13, 2009 from http://www.utexas.edu/courses/svinicki/ald320/March22.html
Van Wagner, Kendra (nd). An Overview of Bandura's Social Learning Theory. Psychology.About.com. Retrieved September 17, 2009 from http://psychology.about.com/od/developmentalpsychology/a/sociallearning.htm