Standardization and grading
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Standardization and Grading. Standards, grades, and regulations Indications of food quality Content and labeling requirements Grading. Indicators of Food Quality. RETAILER ENDORSEMENT. BRANDING. GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS. GOVERNMENT FOOD NAMING CRITERIA. INGREDIENT LIST. PACKAGING.

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Standardization and Grading

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Standardization and grading

Standardization and Grading

  • Standards, grades, and regulations

  • Indications of food quality

  • Content and labeling requirements

  • Grading


Indicators of food quality

Indicators of Food Quality

RETAILER

ENDORSEMENT

BRANDING

GOVERNMENT

REGULATIONS

GOVERNMENT

FOOD NAMING

CRITERIA

INGREDIENT

LIST

PACKAGING

PERCEIVED

PRODUCT

QUALITY

FEDERAL, STATE,

REGIONAL, OR

TRADE GRADING


Food standards

Food Standards

  • Regulations (e.g., additives)

  • Sanitation standards

  • Labeling

  • Product qualification requirements: criteria that products must meet in order to use a food term—e.g.,

    • Pizza

    • Mayonnaise

  • Specifications for Government purchases


Some labeling examples

Some Labeling Examples

  • Fat content

    • Framing: “80% lean” sounds leaner than “20% fat”

    • Possible new category of “trans fatty acids”

  • Calorie content

  • Carbohydrate

    • “Net” or “impact” carbs

  • Fortification (e.g., Vitamin C)


Some content standards examples

Some Content Standards Examples

  • Beef stew

  • Chili con carne

  • Hamburger, ground beef

  • Pizza with sausage

  • Chicken soup


Grading

Grading

  • Dividing disparate products within a product category into uniform sub-categories—e.g.,

    • Butter: AA, A, B C

    • Eggs: AA, A, B

    • Beef: USDA Prime, USDA Choice, USDA Select, USDA Standard

    • Potatoes: U.S. Extra No. 1, U.S. No. 1

  • Benefits

    • Consumer information

    • Clear commercial transactions

    • Futures contracts

    • Poolability of products in shipments

  • 235 Federal grades


Milk grades

Milk Grades

Source: http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/1998/198_milk.html


Types of standards

Types of Standards

  • Mandatory

    • Interstate vs. intrastate transactions

  • Permissive (recommendations)

  • Tentative


Grading requirements and standards

Use of Federal grading is usually not required

Tradition

Cost (under some circumstances)

Redundancy with other grading standards

Possible inhibition of innovation

Criteria:

Importance of characteristics to consumers

Accurate and uniform measurement

Meaningful terminology that clearly describes

Meaningful distribution of product between grades

Reasonable cost

Grading: Requirements and Standards


Problems and implementation

Problems and Implementation

  • Harvest years may yield varying proportions of different grades

  • Perishabililty and its impact on grades

  • Inspection requirements may not be incorporated into grading

  • Conflicting interests of retail chain and meat packers

  • Lack of consumer awareness of grades and criteria


Limitations on claims that can be made

Limitations on Claims that Can Be Made

  • “Light:”

    • Fewer than 50% of calories from fat

    • 50% reduction in sodium content if applicable

    • Calories reduced by at least 1/3

  • “Fat free:” >0.5 grams of fat per reference unit

  • “Low Fat”


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