Lesson 7 remote sensing
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 53

Lesson 7: Remote Sensing PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 141 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Lesson 7: Remote Sensing. Dr Andrew Ketsdever MAE 5595. Outline. Electromagnetic Radiation Blackbody Radiation Atmospheric Windows Instrument Parameters Remote Sensing Architectures. EM Radiation. Photon wavelength, frequency and energy. h = 6.626 x 10 -34 J sec. EM Radiation.

Download Presentation

Lesson 7: Remote Sensing

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Lesson 7 remote sensing

Lesson 7: Remote Sensing

Dr Andrew Ketsdever

MAE 5595


Outline

Outline

  • Electromagnetic Radiation

  • Blackbody Radiation

  • Atmospheric Windows

  • Instrument Parameters

  • Remote Sensing Architectures


Em radiation

EM Radiation

  • Photon wavelength, frequency and energy

h = 6.626 x 10-34 J sec


Em radiation1

EM Radiation

  • Communications

  • Microwaves: 1 mm to 1 m wavelength. The microwaves are further divided into different frequency (wavelength) bands: (1 GHz = 109 Hz)

    • P band: 0.3 - 1 GHz (30 - 100 cm)

    • L band: 1 - 2 GHz (15 - 30 cm)

    • S band: 2 - 4 GHz (7.5 - 15 cm)

    • C band: 4 - 8 GHz (3.8 - 7.5 cm)

    • X band: 8 - 12.5 GHz (2.4 - 3.8 cm)

    • Ku band: 12.5 - 18 GHz (1.7 - 2.4 cm)

    • K band: 18 - 26.5 GHz (1.1 - 1.7 cm)

    • Ka band: 26.5 - 40 GHz (0.75 - 1.1 cm)

    • V band: 50 – 75 GHz

    • W band: 75 – 111 GHz


Em radiation2

EM Radiation

  • Heat energy is the KE of random motion of the particles in matter

  • Temperature is the measure of heat energy concentrated in a substance

  • Random motion results in COLLISIONS

  • COLLISIONS cause changes in the internal energy of the molecules

  • Internal energy modes relax to ground state by giving off photons (EM Radiation)


Blackbody radiation

Blackbody Radiation

  • An ideal thermal emitter

    • Transforms heat energy into radiant energy at the maximum rate allowed (Thermodynamics)

    • Any real material at the same temperature can not emit at a rate in excess of a blackbody

  • An ideal thermal absorber

  • Planck’s formula

C1 = 3.74 x 10-16 Wm2 = 2phc2

C2 = 1.44 x 10-2 mK = hc/k


Blackbody radiation1

Blackbody Radiation

  • Wien’s Displacement Law

    • Defines wavelength in a blackbody at which the maximum energy is emitted


Blackbody radiation2

Blackbody Radiation

  • Stefan-Boltzmann Law

    • Relates the power emitted by a body to that body’s temperature

s = 5.669 x 10-8 Wm-2K-4


Other than blackbody radiation

Other Than Blackbody Radiation

  • Emissivity

    • Ratio of the spectral energy radiated by a material to that of a blackbody at the same temperature

    • Can depend on

      • Wavelength

      • Temperature

      • Phase (solid/liquid)


Atmospheric windows

Atmospheric Windows


Atmospheric windows1

Atmospheric Windows


Atmospheric windows2

Atmospheric Windows


Atmospheric window

Atmospheric Window

M13 Observations

Rotational Transitions in CO


Window transmission

Window Transmission

Glass

Quartz

Sapphire


Instrument parameters

Instrument Parameters

Telescopes: Microwave, Radio, IR, Vis, UV, XRay, Gamma Ray


Instrument parameters1

Instrument Parameters

f – focal length

h – altitude

rd – radius of detector array

Rg – ½ Swath Width


Instrument parameters2

Instrument Parameters

  • Focal Length

Refractive System

Reflective System


Instrument parameters3

Instrument Parameters

  • F-Stop or F-Number

D - Aperture


Instrument parameters4

Instrument Parameters

  • A telescope's spatial (or angular) resolution refers to how well it can distinguish between two objects in space which are separated by a small angular distance.

  • The closer two objects can be while still seen as two separate objects, the higher the spatial resolution of the telescope.

  • The spatial resolution of a telescope affects how well details can be seen in an image.

    • A telescope with higher spatial resolution creates clearer and more detailed images.


Instrument parameters5

Instrument Parameters

  • Diffraction Limited Resolution

    • Rayleigh diffraction criteria

    • Angular distance from maximum brightness at the center of the image to the first dark interference ring

h can be replaced by slant

range for off Nadir obs.


Instrument parameters6

Instrument Parameters

Aberration

Stigmatism

Coma


Instrument parameters7

Instrument Parameters


Instrument parameters8

Instrument Parameters


Instrument parameters9

Instrument Parameters

  • Silicon Imager Spectral Response


Instrument parameters10

Instrument Parameters

  • IR Detectors


Remote sensing architectures

Remote Sensing Architectures

Global Ocean Temperatures


Remote sensing architectures1

Remote Sensing Architectures

Passive

Active

Mie scattering (small particles)

Rayleigh Scattering (large particles)


Remote sensing architectures2

Remote Sensing Architectures

What is the driver for the remote sensing architecture?

Cosmic Background Explorer

SPOT

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter


Remote sensing architectures3

Remote Sensing Architectures

  • Landsat 7

  • a panchromatic band with 15m spatial resolution

  • on-board, full aperture, 5% absolute radiometric calibration

  • a thermal IR channel with 60m spatial resolution

  • an on-board data recorder


Remote sensing architectures4

Remote Sensing Architectures

Baghdad

Chicago


Remote sensing architectures5

Remote Sensing Architectures


Remote sensing architecture

Remote Sensing Architecture


Remote sensing architectures6

Remote Sensing Architectures


Lesson 7 remote sensing

Diffuse – Rough Surface

Specular – Smooth Surface

Maxwell Model


Remote sensing architectures7

Remote Sensing Architectures


Remote sensing architectures8

Remote Sensing Architectures

  • Space Radar

    • Mauna Loa Volcano

      • Rift Zones (Orange)

      • Smooth Lava Flows (Red)

        • Pahoehoe Flows

      • Rough Lava Flows (Yellow/White)

        • A’a Flows

    • Obtained by sensing different Radar bands


Space radar systems

Space Radar Systems


Remote sensing architectures9

Remote Sensing Architectures


Remote sensing architectures10

Remote Sensing Architectures


Remote sensing architectures11

Remote Sensing Architectures


Remote sensing architectures12

Remote Sensing Architectures


Remote sensing architectures13

Remote Sensing Architectures


Remote sensing architectures14

Remote Sensing Architectures


Remote sensing architectures15

Remote Sensing Architectures

  • LIDAR

    • Light Detection and Ranging


Remote sensing architectures16

Remote Sensing Architectures


Remote sensing architectures17

Remote Sensing Architectures

  • Pushbroom Sensor


  • Login