Ireland in the 20 th century
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IRELAND IN THE 20 TH CENTURY. What was Irish politics like at the beginning of the 20 th century?. POLITICAL GROUPS IN EARLY 20 TH CENTURY IRELAND.

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IRELAND IN THE 20 TH CENTURY

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Ireland in the 20 th century

IRELAND IN THE 20TH CENTURY

What was Irish politics like at the beginning of the 20th century?


Political groups in early 20 th century ireland

POLITICAL GROUPS IN EARLY 20TH CENTURY IRELAND

  • At the beginning of the 20th century, Ireland was ruled from London and represented by Irish members of parliament (MPs) in Westminster. The Lord Lieutenant represented the king in Ireland. This had been the case since the Act of Union in 1800.

  • The two main political groups in the country were the:

    • NATIONALISTS want self-government for Ireland.

    • UNIONISTS want to maintain Ireland’s union with England.


There were a number of different nationalist groups

THERE WERE A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT NATIONALIST GROUPS:


What does this cartoon show

What does this cartoon show?


What was unionism

What wasUnionism?

Unionists were opposed to any change to the 1801 Act of Union between Britain and Ireland – Ireland as part of the United Kingdom, governed by one parliament.


Unionist leadership

UNIONIST LEADERSHIP

  • The unionists were lead by:

    • Edward Carson: A Dublin born barrister who became a unionist MP.

    • James Craig: An industrialist who succeeded in uniting unionist groups through the Ulster Unionist Council (UCC).


Why did unionists fear home rule

WHY DID UNIONISTS FEAR HOME RULE?


Belfast under home rule

BELFAST UNDER HOME RULE

Examine the cartoon, which shows an imagined Belfast under Home Rule, and answer the following questions:

Is this cartoonist for or against Home Rule? How do you know this?

What does the cartoonist suggest will be the future for Belfast under Home Rule?


The labour movement

THE LABOUR MOVEMENT

  • The Labour movement was led by B___________ and J____________. Larkin founded the ITGWU (I____ T________ and G______ W______ U____) to organise unskilled workers. This led to clashes with W_________________. The biggest protest happened in August 1913 during the Dublin Horse Show, which became known as the D_____ S_____ and L______. James Connolly founded the I____ C______ A___ during the lockout to protect the workers.


An extract from an article in the united irishman by arthur griffith 1905

An extract from an article in the United Irishman by Arthur Griffith, 1905

  • ‘A nation cannot promote and further its civilisation, its prosperity and social progress unless it establishes a manufacturing industry. A merely agricultural nation can never develop to any extent a home or foreign commerce, increase its population or make progress.

  • With the development of her manufacturing arm will proceed a middle class, a trained democracy and the authority of national language and literature and the civilising arts which keep pace with the development of the manufacturing arm.

  • We propose the formation of a Council of Three Hundred, composed of members of county, urban and rural councils and the members elected for Irish constituencies to form an Irish Parliament.

  • Name the writer of the document.

  • List three arguments in favour of Ireland developing manufacturing industries.

  • Give two arguments made against Ireland remaining reliant on agriculture.


The home rule crisis 1912 1914

THE HOME RULE CRISIS: 1912 – 1914

  • In Britain, the Liberal party favoured Home Rule for Ireland, but the Conservative Party was opposed to it.

  • After elections in 1910, the Liberal Party was in government in Britain, but it needed the support of the Irish Home Rule Party. In return for that support, the Liberal Party brought in a Home Rule Bill for Ireland in 1912.

  • The House of Lords would only be able to delay the passing of the Bill for two years so that by 1914 Ireland would have a Home Rule parliament.


Unionist opposition to home rule

UNIONIST OPPOSITION TO HOME RULE

  • Carson and Craig held demonstrations against Home Rule.

  • Unionists signed the Solemn League and Covenant to defend the union with Britain by all means. They were supported by British Conservatives.

  • Unionists founded the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF). They imported arms and ammunition from Germany through to Larne.

  • The Curragh Mutiny saw the British army refuse to enforce Home Rule in Ulster.

  • Nationalists organised the Irish Volunteer Force. They brought in arms through Howth. It was discovered and led to violence from the British forces.


War the end of the crisis

WAR – THE END OF THE CRISIS

  • Compromise between Unionists and Nationalists failed and it looked like Ireland was heading to civil war.

  • The First World War broke out and both sides agreed to help the war effort.

  • The Home Rule Bill became law but it was postponed until after the war was over.


Ireland in ww1

IRELAND IN WW1

  • Unionists supported the war effort and joined the British army.

  • Nationalists split with the majority joining the British army on advice from John Redmond. 10,000 remained in Ireland to support the Nationalist cause.


Ireland in the 20 th century

TASK:

  • Who founded Sinn Féin in 1905?

  • What was the Solemn League and Covenant, 1912?

  • Write an account of the Home Rule Crisis, 1912 – 14.

    • What was Home Rule?

    • What was British reaction to Home Rule?

    • What was Unionist reaction to Home Rule?

    • How interrupted Home Rule?

    • How did this affect Nationalists?

QUESTION 5 ON THE SOLEMN LEAGUE AND COVENANT


Prelude to rebellion

PRELUDE TO REBELLION


The easter rising

THE EASTER RISING

  • IN DUBLIN:

    • Volunteers and Citizen Army soldiers took several buildings in Dublin but failed to capture Dublin Castle.

    • The British moved troops into Trinity College and Dublin Castle and got reinforcements from Britain and the Curragh. They bombarded the GPO and by Friday, the area was in flames. After failing to flee the city, Pearse and Connolly ordered an unconditional surrender.

  • ELSEWHERE:

    • Because of no or conflicting orders, people were reluctant to rebel. There was some fighting in North Dublin/South Meath, Enniscorthy and Wexford.


Results of the rising

RESULTS OF THE RISING


The rise of sinn f in

THE RISE OF SINN FÉIN

Éamon de Valera took over from Arthur Griffith as president of Sinn Féin after the Rising.

Sinn Féin’s popularity grew because:

They opposed British conscription in Ireland.

Sinn Féin leaders were martyrs.

Sinn Féin won by-elections.


The 1918 general election

THE 1918 GENERAL ELECTION

  • The General Election following WW1 demonstrated Sinn Féin’s success. Calling themselves teachtaídála (TDs) they demanded:

    • A republic with complete independence from Britain.

    • Abstentionism – forming a parliament in Dublin rather than Westminster.

    • Violence or physical force might be necessary.

What was the main result of the 1918 general election?


Ireland in the 20 th century

  • From whom does Ireland receive her ‘old tradition of nationhood’?

  • Name one of the groups that ‘organised and trained her manhood’.

  • Give one piece of evidence to show that the Rising received support from outside of Ireland.

  • What does the document accuse the ‘alien government’ of doing?

  • Give two pieces of evidence from the extract to show how the leaders hoped that this document would encourage people to support the Rising.

  • Name two of the leaders who were executed for their part in the 1916 Rising.


The independence struggle 1919 1921

type of warfare fought by irregulars in fast-moving, small-scale actions against orthodox military and police forces

THE INDEPENDENCE STRUGGLE: 1919 - 1921

  • Irish nationalists led a campaign to gain independence from Britain.

Fast-moving, small scale attacks against orthodox forces.


War of independence 1919 1921

WAR OF INDEPENDENCE: 1919 - 1921

  • Irish nationalists led a campaign to gain independence from Britain.

Fast-moving, small scale attacks against orthodox forces.


Sinn f in the first d il

SINN FÉIN & THE FIRST DÁIL

  • Sinn Féin TDs met on the 21st January 1919 to form the first Dáil. Only 27 attended because some TDs were in jail or on the run. Home Rulers and Unionists did not attend.

  • Orders of business were:

    • The Declaration of Independence.

    • A Message to the Free Nations of the World

    • A programme to improve living and working conditions.

Why do you think these were the first issues dealt with?


Roles responsibilities

ROLES & RESPONSIBILITIES

  • Sinn Féin set out to gain control over the country:

    • Local government

    • Courts to try crimes

    • Collins organised a Dáil loan


War of independence

WAR OF INDEPENDENCE

  • On the same day as the first Dáil, 21st January 1919, an RIC (Royal Irish Constabulary) patrol was ambushed in Co. Tipperary. Two policemen were shot dead. These were the first shots of the War of Independence.

  • TACTICS USED:

  • Guerrilla Warfare

  • Michael Collins’ Squad

  • Flying Columns

  • De Valera went to America to gain support.


British response

BRITISH RESPONSE

  • David Lloyd George, the British prime minister, organised the Black and Tans (ex-soldiers) and the Auxiliaries (ex-officers) to fight the IRA.

    • They took revenge on families and towns.

  • Lloyd George passed the Government of Ireland Act, 1920 to set up a parliament in Belfast and Dublin. Sinn Féin rejected this.


British response1

BRITISH RESPONSE

  • BLOODY SUNDAY: On 21st November 1920 Michael Collins Squad killed a group of British agents sent to find him. Black and Tans shot into the crowd at a football match in Croke Park, killing 12 people.

  • 80 IRA members were captured or killed when the Dublin brigade attacked the Custom House in Dublin.


Peace

PEACE

  • Both sides now wanted peace. The IRA was running out of ammunition while the British government was criticised at home and abroad because of the Black and Tans and Auxiliaries.

  • De Valera came back from America where he spent most of the War of Independence. He agreed a truce with Lloyd George, which came into effect in July 1921.


The anglo irish treaty

THE ANGLO-IRISH TREATY

  • Sinn Féin sent a delegation to London to negotiate a treaty with the British government. It was led by Griffith and Collins.

  • The British delegation was more experienced and included Lloyd George and Winston Churchill. They negotiated better terms.

    • Ireland was now known as the Irish Free State.

    • It was a member of the British Commonwealth.

    • TDs would have to take an Oath of Allegiance to the British King.

    • Three ports would be used by the British navy.

    • A Boundary Commission would be set up to decide the border between North and South.


Arguments for against the treaty

ARGUMENTS FOR & AGAINST THE TREATY

The Dáil was divided over the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty.

The Dáil voted in favour of the Treaty by 64 votes to 57.


The anglo irish treaty1

THE ANGLO-IRISH TREATY

  • Write a paragraph on the Anglo-Irish Treaty. Include the following:

    • Why the Treaty took place

    • Information on the delegates

    • The terms of the Treaty

    • Results of the Treaty


The civil war

THE CIVIL WAR

  • The Pro-Treaty (led by Collins) side took over the Four Courts in Dublin and captured a Free State general.

  • The Regulars attacked the Irregulars in the Munster Republic, capturing Cork.

  • Griffith died from a brain haemorrhage.

  • Collins was killed in an ambush at BéalnamBláth, Co Cork.

  • Cosgrave and O’Higgins took over the Free State government.

  • The War ended when de Valera got the IRA to call a ceasefire in May 1923.


The civil war1

THE CIVIL WAR


Results

RESULTS

  • Over 900 killed. £30 million damage to property

  • Bitterness between Pro and Anti Treaty for years

  • Loss of Collins and Griffith

  • The two main political parties owe their origins to the Pro and Anti Treaty sides

    • Pro-Treaty → CumannnanGaedheal →Fine Gael

    • Anti-Treaty → Sinn Féin → FiannaFáil


The new state

THE NEW STATE

  • CumannnanGaedheal formed the government of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1932. It was led by W.T. Cosgrave.


Law order

LAW & ORDER

  • The Constitution set up two houses of parliament – the Dáil and Seanad.

  • The government set up the Garda Síochána, the court system was re-organised and a Public Safety Act gave the government wide powers of arrest.

  • The Free State government overcame the Army Mutiny in 1924.


The economy

THE ECONOMY

  • The government improved agriculture with animal breeding methods, loans for farmers and low taxes.

  • The government established the Shannon Scheme to build a hydroelectric station.

  • THE SHANNON SCHEME was a hydroelectric plant on the Shannon to generate electricity for the country. It cost £5 million and it was one of the largest building projects of the state. The ESB was set up to construct a grid to take electricity around the country.


Relations with britain

RELATIONS WITH BRITAIN

  • The Boundary Commission was set up to decide the border between North and South. Nationalists hoped that they would make the North of Ireland so small that it would be forced to join the South. The suggested changes were so small, that no changes were made.

  • Ireland in the Commonwealth: CumannnanGaedheal worked to gain more independence for Ireland. The British government passed the Statute of Westminster 1931, which allowed Ireland to change any laws on Ireland passed by British parliament.


Decline of cumann na ngaedheal

DECLINE OF CUMANN nanGAEDHEAL

  • Why did CumannnanGaedheal decline in popularity?

    • The Great Depression affected Ireland and unemployment rose.

    • The government cut the pay of teachers and gardaí.

    • De Valera and FiannaFáil won the 1932 general election.


Questions

QUESTIONS:

  • What was the job of the Boundary Commission?

  • What was the Statute of Westminster? Why was it important?

  • Why did CummannanGaedheal decline in popularity?

  • Mention two important ways in which the CumannnanGaedheal governments contributed to the development of Ireland between 1923 and 1932.

    (Questions 10, 12, 13, 14)


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