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Our Living Earth and the atmosphere

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HW#7 on the Greenhouse Effect, available on-line at D2L. Assigned March 27th, DUE in-class on April 3 rd. Our Living Earth and the atmosphere. The Earth’s atmosphere has changed substantially over our planet’s history.

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Presentation Transcript
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HW#7 on the Greenhouse Effect, available on-line at D2L. Assigned March 27th, DUE in-class on April 3rd.
the earth s atmosphere has changed substantially over our planet s history
The Earth’s atmosphere has changed substantially over our planet’s history
  • First gases surrounding Earth were originally hydrogen and helium (during solar system formation)
  • Earth’s early atmosphere was primarily CO2 and released from Earth’s interior by volcanoes
  • Earth’s current atmosphere is a 4-to-1 mixture of nitrogen and oxygen which was created by biological activity of single-celled bacteria.
slide6

The sun drives the climate of Earth

http://www.spaceweather.com/images2002/18mar02/cme_c3_big.gif

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The amount of energy absorbed by Earth from the Sun is equal to the amount of energy given off by Earth.

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Energy Output per second

Wavelength

The spectral curve of the Earth, as measured from far above Earth’s atmosphere, peaks at a wavelength of approximately 10mm and that corresponds to a temperature of approximately 255 K (0oF).

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Energy Output per second

Temperature seen at top of atmosphere is the same, but what about the surface?

Wavelength

How will the temperature measured by the spacecraft change if the earth is surrounded by an atmosphere?

“The Greenhouse Effect”

wien s law
Wien’s Law

SUNLIGHT

  • Sun radiates mostly visible and IR
wien s law1
Wien’s Law
  • Sun radiates mostly visible and IR
  • Earth radiates Mostly IR, its spectrum peaks in IR around 10 microns (.01mm)

SUNLIGHT

EARTHLIGHT

atmosphere absorption spectrum
Atmosphere Absorption Spectrum
  • Very little absorption at visible wavelengths
  • Absorption of UV by ozone in upper atmosphere
  • Absorption of IR by greenhouse gases in lower atmosphere

UV

VIS

IR

O2 & O3 H2O H2O CO2 CO2 H2O O3 CO2 H2O (rotation)

interaction of light and the atmosphere

Visible

Interaction of Light and the Atmosphere
  • Greenhouse gases (H20, CO2, CH4, other)
  • Absorb different wavelengths of light
    • Absorb and re-emit IR
    • Are transparent to visible light

http://www.ucar.edu/learn/1_3_1.htm

understanding the greenhouse effect
Understanding the Greenhouse Effect
  • Spectra for Sun and Earth
    • Sun gives of mostly visible ; Earth gives of mostly IR
  • Greenhouse gases absorb and re-emit IR but are transparent to Visible light.
    • H20, CO2, CH4
  • Surface of planet is heated by energy (light) from the Sun AND from energy (IR light) re-radiated from the atmosphere
  • GHE effect is a natural process and the surface of Earth would be much colder w/out GHE
three different phenomena
Three DIFFERENT Phenomena
  • Ozone Depletion
  • Greenhouse Effect
  • Global Warming
non natural human induced greenhouse effect leads to global warming
NON-Natural, Human-induced Greenhouse Effect leads to Global Warming
  • Caused by humans
  • Increased levels of CO2 from burning of fossil fuels during industrial revolution to present
  • 1.5°F (0.8 °C) temperature increase over past 150 years
the human population is dramatically increasing
The human population is dramatically increasing

Human induced GHE leads to Global Warming

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The needs of this large population of humans with regard to transportation, energy, and industry is profoundly altering the Earth’s atmosphere

Human induced GHE leads to Global Warming

the increasing human population is profoundly altering the earth s environment
The increasing human population is profoundly altering the Earth’s environment

Human induced GHE leads to Global Warming

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Ozone can be destroyed by synthetic CFC pollutants, such as freon

Two distributions of stratospheric ozone over Antarctic in October 1979 and October 1998. The data show that there has been a dramatic decrease in ozone over the Antarctic. But since we receive very little UV from the Sun, ozone depletion is not contributing to global warming – but could contribute to increased skin cancer where the hole exists

ozone depletion does not lead to global warming
Ozone depletion does not lead to Global Warming

IR

VIS

UV

O2 & O3 H2O H2O CO2 CO2 H2O O3 CO2 H2O (rotation)

Since we receive very little UV from the Sun, ozone depletion is not contributing to global warming – but could contribute to increased skin cancer where the hole exists

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Ozone can be destroyed by synthetic CFC pollutants, such as freon

Will the ozone hole over Antarctica have a more profound effect on the sunburn you receive if you are lying out for an hour on the beaches of Antarctica or Brazil?

what are they and how are they different

What are they and how are they different?

The Greenhouse Effect

Global Warming

Ozone Depletion

the greenhouse effect is caused by
The greenhouse effect is caused by:
  • A lack of ozone in Earth’s atmosphere.
  • the presence of carbon dioxide and water in Earth’s atmosphere.
  • humidity from water vapor makes the atmosphere feel hotter
  • heat energy is trapped in circulation patterns of the ocean
  • the atmosphere shelters earth’s surface from solar wind

Cross-Tab Label

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slide29
If our atmosphere absorbed visible light as much as it absorbs infrared light, which of the following would be true?
  • the surface of the earth would be cooler than it is today
  • the surface of earth would be warmer than it is today
  • the surface of the earth would be same temperature as it is today
  • scientists do not yet understand global climate enough to know for sure

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