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APUSH Exam Review Significant Presidential Elections. Jake Barden. First Presidential election in U.S. History Occurs after the ratification of the Constitution Washington ran essentially unopposed John Adams gets 2 nd most electoral votes, thus becoming first V.P.

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First Presidential election in U.S. History

  • Occurs after the ratification of the Constitution
  • Washington ran essentially unopposed
  • John Adams gets 2nd most electoral votes, thus becoming first V.P.

Adams narrowly defeats Jefferson

  • Major issue of campaign? – Federal Power
  • Federalist party maintains a tedious grip on power in the new republic

“Revolution of 1800” – significance?

  • Jefferson narrowly defeats Adams & Burr
    • Role of Alexander Hamilton & House of Representatives?
  • First transfer of power b/w different political parties in U.S. history
  • Sets precedent for future elections

The “Corrupt Bargain” details of alleged conspiracy?

    • Role of Henry Clay
  • JQA defeats Old Hickory despite not winning the popular vote or majority of electors
  • What group of people does Andrew Jackson appeal to?

Andrew Jackson finally claims the White House

  • Significance of “Jacksonian Democracy”?
    • Democratic - Republicans are reborn as Democrats
  • Executive Branch will be greatly strengthened over the next 8 years
    • What are the three main issues of Jackson’s presidency?

Jackson easily defeats a challenge from powerful political enemy Henry Clay

  • 1832 is an referendum on Old Hickory’s policies dealing with the Bank of the United States
    • Role of Nicholas Biddle?

“Log Cabin Campaign” , “Tippecanoe & Tyler Too”

  • War hero William Henry Harrison* defeats staunch Jacksonsian incumbent Martin Van Buren to become first Whig President
  • How did the Whigs beat the Democrats at their own game?
  • *Died of pneumonia, president for only 30 days

In 1844 the Democrats were split…

  • James K. Polk narrowly defeats seasoned Whig candidate Henry Clay
    • Role of Liberty Party candidate James Birney?
  • Manifest Destiny achieved?
  • Four goals of Polk’s presidency?

Amid building sectional tensions James Buchanan is elected

  • A Northern Democrat, Buchanan will be sympathetic to southern interests and will do little to stop the decent into civil war
  • 1856 marks the first Republican Candidate for President
    • Republican Party Platform?
    • What groups joined to form the Republicans?

Last election before the outbreak of the Civil War

  • Democrats split along sectional lines, ensuring Lincoln’s election despite not winning a true majority of votes
  • Lincoln’s election spurs the South to follow through with threats of secession if a Republican is elected President

As the Civil War approaches its end, Lincoln withstands a challenge from an old acquaintance – General George McClellan, aka “Tardy” George

    • What event ensures Lincoln’s reelection?

The Corrupt Bargain Part II?

  • In an election decided by the House of Rep, Hayes defeats Tilden by one Electoral vote
  • How does the Election of 1876 effect Reconstruction?
    • Main terms of Compromise of 1877?

Final election of the 19th Century, U.S. on the verge of modernity

    • Nation is emerging from the Gilded Age
  • Peak of Populist movement - People’s Party briefly merges with Democrats & nominates William Jennings Bryan
    • Main Issues of 1896 election?
    • Significance of William McKinley’s victory?

TR win’s the presidency in his own right

  • TR concentrates on more progressive reforms in his 2nd term
    • Square Deal?
    • Bully Pulpit?
    • Trust Busting?
    • Big Stick Diplomacy?

Three major candidates all claim to be progressives

  • Height of Progressive Era
    • New Freedom vs. New Nationalism
    • Role of TR & the Bull Moose Party/relationship with Taft?

Reelection for Woodrow Wilson

    • Triple wall of privilege?
  • Wilson’s official foreign policy position?
  • How do events in and around Europe force Wilson to change this position in regard WWI?

Harding elected in a “return to normalcy” after WWI

  • Ushers in an era of laissez faire gov’t that will last until the beginning of The Great Depression

Promising a “New Deal” to pull the nation out of depression FDR defeats the incredibly unpopular Herbert Hoover in landslide fashion

  • 1932 marks the switch in voting loyalties among black Americans as the majority vote Democrat for the first time

After winning reelection in 1936 and with major trouble brewing in Europe & East Asia, FDR is granted a 3rd term

  • U.S. officially enters WWII at the end of 1941

With WWII raging, FDR wins an unprecedented 4th term in office

  • With FRD’s death in April of 1945, Harry Truman assumes the presidency
    • Truman will make the final decisions that will end WWII

In perhaps the most surprising election result in U.S. history, incumbent Harry Truman defeats heavily favored Thomas Dewey

  • In his 2nd term Truman, will continue to use economic aid to rebuild war torn Europe in the face of spreading communism
  • Truman will also deal with criticism over failure to contain communism in Asia
    • Dixie-crat (states rights) Senator Strom Thurmond runs on a segregationist platform and garners significant votes in the deep south

War hero Gen. Dwight Eisenhower is elected as the nation begins an era of unprecedented prosperity

  • Beneath the perceived aura of domestic stability of the 1950s are serious issues which will explode in the near future
    • Civil Rights
    • Women’s Rights
    • Nuclear proliferation (M.A.D.) & the continuing Cold War

Closest election until 2000, JFK narrowly defeats Nixon

    • Role of TV debates? JFK’s religion? Nixon’s connection to Ike?
  • How did JFK seem to embody the changing spirit in America during the early 1960s?

Nixon rebounds from defeat in 1960 to narrowly claim White House

  • Significance of the “Silent Majority”?
    • 3rd party candidate George Wallace runs on a segregationist platform – effect on election?
    • What fears did Wallace exploit as a part of his candidacy?

Easy reelection for Nixon as Watergate investigation begins to widen

  • Watergate scandal explodes after Nixon’s 2nd inauguration

1980 begins the resurgence of conservatism in American Politics

    • What prompted this shift to the right in American politics?
  • CA governor Ronald Reagan leads the neoconservatives into power
    • Birth of the modern conservation movement?
    • Influence of religious right?
    • Reaganomics?

Closest presidential election in U.S. history

  • George W. Bush elected despite narrowly losing the popular vote
    • Role of Florida?
    • Role of the Supreme Court?
the american two party system
The American Two Party System

**Dates are general in nature, it is possible for overlap to exist**

  • Pre-Party System: Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
  • 1st Party System: Late 1790s – 1828
    • Federalists vs. Democratic-Republicans: Adams – JQA
  • 2nd Party System: 1828 – 1854
    • Democrats vs. Whigs: Jackson – Pierce/Buchanan
  • 3rd Party System: 1854 – mid 1890s
    • Democrats vs. Republicans: Lincoln – Cleveland
  • 4th Party System: 1896 – 1932
    • Democrats(Populists & Progressives) vs. Republicans: McKinley – Hoover
  • 5th Party System: 1933 - ??? Still ongoing?
    • New Deal Democrats vs. Conservative Republicans: FDR - ???

**Did a 6th Party System begin in the 1980s with conservative resurgence?**