Cardiovascular system
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Cardiovascular System. Chapter 13 – B.2. B.3.1 Define heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output and venous return. Heart rate : number of heart contractions per minute measured by taking the pulse : alternating expansion and relaxation of elastic arteries during the cardiac cycle

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Cardiovascular System

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Cardiovascular system

Cardiovascular System

Chapter 13 – B.2


B 3 1 define heart rate stroke volume cardiac output and venous return

B.3.1 Define heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output and venous return.

  • Heart rate: number of heart contractions per minute

    • measured by taking the pulse: alternating expansion and relaxation of elastic arteries during the cardiac cycle

    • Large animal = slow pulse

    • Small animal = fast pulse

    • Average pulse for humans = 65-75 bpm

    • Factors that affect heart rate or pulse:

      • Sex of the individual

      • Activity level

      • Emotions

      • Postural changes


B 3 1 define heart rate stroke volume cardiac output and venous return continued

B.3.1 Define heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output and venous return. (continued)

  • Stroke Volume: volume of blood pumped out by the heart with each contraction

    • Heart contraction = systole

    • Stroke volume = systolic discharge

    • Average SV for human = 70ml

  • Cardiac Output: volume of blood pumped out of the heart per minute

  • Stroke Volume x Heart Rate = Cardiac Output(ml/beat) (beats/min) (ml/min)


B 3 1 define heart rate stroke volume cardiac output and venous return continued1

B.3.1 Define heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output and venous return. (continued)

  • Venous Return: volume of blood that returns to the heart via the veins each minute

    • affected by:

      • blood volume

      • heart contractions

      • muscle pumps throughout the body


B 3 2 explain the changes in cardiac output and venous return during exercise

B.3.2 Explain the changes in cardiac output and venous return during exercise.

  • Exercise increases cardiac output

    • increased cardiac output = need for increased blood return to the heart by the venous system

      • so, there is an increase in squeezing action by skeletal muscles to move blood through the veins

        • results in increased blood volume in ventricles = increase in venous return


B 3 3 compare the distribution of blood flow at rest and during exercise

B.3.3 Compare the distribution of blood flow at rest and during exercise.

  • Blood flow to the brain is constant during rest and exercise

  • During an exercise activity:

    • Increase in blood flow to organs involved

      • Skeletal muscles, cardiac muscles, and skin

    • Decrease in blood flow to:

      • Kidneys, stomach, intestine, other abdominal organs


Cardiovascular system

B.3.4 Explain the effects of training on heart rate and stroke volume, both at rest and during exercise.

  • During exercise, the heart undergoes hypertrophy (enlargement & strengthening)

  • Trained individuals benefit from:

    • Decrease in heart rate at rest & while exercising

    • Increased stroke volume at rest = increase in cardiac output

  • Other effects of aerobic exercise:

    • Decrease in blood pressure

    • Increase in blood volume

    • More effective blood distribution to body parts


Cardiovascular system

B.3.5 Evaluate the risks and benefits of using erythropoietin (EPO) and blood transfusions to improve performance in sports.

  • Blood transfusions (blood doping): artificially increases the number of RBCs in an athlete to enhance performance

  • EPO: stimulates production of RBCs in bone marrow

  • Both procedures increases oxygen carrying capacity of their blood = more efficient muscle activity


Cardiovascular system

B.3.5 Evaluate the risks and benefits of using erythropoietin (EPO) and blood transfusions to improve performance in sports. (continued)

  • Benefits of EPO and transfusions:

    • Treatment for anemia patients

    • Replacement of blood lost due to injury or surgery

  • Risks:

    • Increased blood viscosity

    • Increased blood pressure

    • Increased chance of blood clotting


H 5 1 explain the events of the cardiac cycle and heart sounds

H.5.1 Explain the events of the cardiac cycle and heart sounds.

  • In an average human at rest, the entire heart cycle takes about 0.8 sec.

  • The cardiac muscles contract (systole) and relax (diastole) in a rhythmic cycle

  • During the relaxation phase (0.4 sec), blood returning from the veins flows into the atria and ventricles

  • A brief period (0.1 sec) of systole forces the blood from the atria into the ventricles

  • Last 0.3 sec, ventricular systole pumps blood into arteries


H 5 1 explain the events of the cardiac cycle and heart sounds continued

H.5.1 Explain the events of the cardiac cycle and heart sounds. (continued)

  • The heart sounds are the closing of the valves in the heart

  • First sound (lub) is the blood hitting the closed AV valves

  • Second sound (dub) blood hitting the semilunar valves

    http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/esp/2002_general/Esp/folder_structure/tr/m2/s6/index.htm


Define blood pressure and describe how it is measured

Define blood pressure and describe how it is measured.

  • Blood Pressure: The force of the fluid on the wall of the blood vessel. Creates movement.

    • Measured with two numbers

      • First number – systolic pressure

      • Second number – diastolic pressure

  • A sphygmomanometer is used

    • Pressure is applied until it closes the artery

    • The pressure is gradually released until blood flows and pulsing is heard (systolic pressure)

    • The pressure is further released until no sound is heard (diastolic pressure)


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