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第 13 章 TCP/IP 网络管理 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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第 13 章 TCP/IP 网络管理. 13.1 网络概述 13.2 网络配置 13.3 定为基本的网络故障和收集网络状态信息 13.4 基本网络服务的介绍 13.5 小结 习题. 主机系统的网络管理涵盖很多方面的内容,包括网络设备的安装、网络故障的检测、网络流量的统计以及状态信息的收集,本章将通过一些基本网络操作命令的介绍和对网络配置文件的分析,帮助读者更好地理解网络的工作原理,提高管理技能。. 13.1 网络概述

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第 13 章 TCP/IP 网络管理

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13 TCP/IP

13.1

13.2

13.3

13.4

13.5



13.1

LinuxUnixLinuxTCP/IPUUCPUUCP(Unix-to-Unix Copy)UNIXUUCPTCP/IPUUCPTCP/IPUUCPTCP/IPLinux


TCP/IPInternetISO/OSIInternetTCP/IPTCP/IPTCP/IP

13.1TCP/IP


13.1 TCP/IP


TCP/IP(TCPUDP)(IP)FTPWWW(socketWindows Sockets)socketTCP


TCP/IP


13.2

13.2.1

ISAPCIPCIISAISAISALinuxI/O

PCIISA


I/O/etc/conf.modules(modules.conf)ISA3c509conf.modulesalias eth0 3c509

options 3c509 io=0x3000x16PCIalias(ethN)PCII/OPCIconf.modulesalias eth0 3c509 # insmod (3c509)PCIISA


ISA/etc/lilo.confLILOISAlilo.confappend=ether=3,0x300,eth0

lilo.confISAISAI/OPCI


13.2.2 TCP/IP

TCP/IPTCP/IP

1. IP

TCP/IPTCP/IP


X.Y.Z.W

XYZW025532TCP/IPIP

+11166.111.4.1

=1010011001101111

=0000010000000001


IPIP166.111.4.1166.111.4.0166.111.4.255166.111.4

IPIP166.1111665536166.111


IBM16242558

[]16777214[]65543[]254[]N/A[]N/A2Internet


A 10.0.0.0

B 172.16.0.0172.31.0.0

C 192.168.0.0192.168.255.0

IP32Ipv6(IPIpv4)


2. MAC

MAC648xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xxifconfigIBMTCP/IPTCP/IPARPIP


ARP

3.

TCP/IPIPUC-berkelyIP


A192.168.2.4B192.168.2.5255.255.255.0192.168.2.1ABBB,ARPMACAB


VLSM()


13.2.3

LinuxTCP/IPTCP/IP

1. /etc/HOSTNAME

linux.cic.tsinghua.edu.cn(Linuxcic.tinsghua.edu.cn)


2. /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ethN

RedHat/etc/sysconfig/network-scriptsifcfg-eth0ifcfg-eht1

/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0DEVICE=eth0

IPADDR=192.168.2.1IP

NETMASK=255.255.255.0

NETWORK=192.168.2.0

BROADCAST=192.168.2.255


ONBOOT=yesyes/no

BOOTPROTO=noneproto:

(1) none

(2) bootp bootp

(3) dhcp dhcp

USERCTL=norootyes/no

ifcfg-ethNN01


3. /etc/resolv.conf

DNS(resolverIP)

search cic.tsinghua.edu.cn

nameserver 166.111.4.5

nameserver 166.111.8.28

searchnameserver


4. /etc/host.conf

LinuxIP

order bind,hosts

multi on

nospoof on

order bind,hostsDNS/etc/hosts

multi on/etc/hostsIP


nospoof onIPIPIP

5. /etc/sysconfig/network

NETWORK=yes/no

FORWARD-IPV4=yes/noIP

HOSTNAME=Air

DOMAINNAME=cic.tsinghua.edu.cn

GATEWAY=166.111.4.1IP

GATEWAYDEV=eth0


HOSTNAME

6. /etc/hosts

DNSIP/etc/hostsIP


/etc/hosts

127.0.0.1 localhost localhost.localdomain

202.112.58.200 smthbbs

166.111.4.6 rs6000 rs6000.cic.tsinghua.edu.cn

IP#/etc/rc.d/init.d/network restart

Stopping network: OK

Starting network: OK

Linux/UNIX


PATHPATH../rm(ls -l)rm ls -lUNIX


/bin/rmrootshell.//etc/rc.d/init.d# ./network restartnetworkrc.local


7. /etc/inetd. conf

inetdinetd.confinetdinetdkillinetd(HUP)

# kill-HUP `cat/var/run/inetd.pid`


HUP1inetdPIDLinux/var/run/inetd.pid

13.2.4TCP/IP

1. ifconfig

ifconfigWindowsLinux/UNIX


: eth0IP

# ifconfig eth0 192.168.2.4 netmask 255.255.255.0

IP1192.168.2.255:

# ifconfig eth0 192.168.2.4 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.2.255

ifconfig

# ifconfig13.2


13.2ifconfig(Alpha)

ifconfig


eth0

Link encap

Hwaddr (MAC)

Inet addr IP

Bcast

Mask

3 ifconfig

45 RXTX


Lo

-a()

# ifconfig-a

ifconfigIPMACeth0MAC/etc/rc.d/init.d/networkifconfig eth0 hw ether xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx


hwether#/etc/rc.d/init.d/network restart

ifconfigIP/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-ethNIPADDR

IPADDR=192.168.2.254


2. route

routeIP,


13.3

ping

pingping

# ping IP


-l13.1pingICMPICMPICMPICMP192.168.2.4ping192.168.2.1


# ping 192.168.2.1

PING 192.168.2.1(192.168.2.1) from 192.168.2.4 : 56(84) bytes of data.

64 bytes from 192.168.2.1: icmp-seq=0 ttl=30 time=2.1 ms

64 bytes from 192.168.2.1: icmp-seq=1 ttl=30 time=1.3 ms

64 bytes from 192.168.2.1: icmp-seq=2 ttl=30 time=0.6 ms

64 bytes from 192.168.2.1: icmp-seq=3 ttl=30 time=0.5 ms

64 bytes from 192.168.2.1: icmp-seq=4 ttl=30 time=0.7 ms

64 bytes from 192.168.2.1: icmp-seq=5 ttl=30 time=1.2 ms--- ---192.168.2.1 ping statistics -----

6 packets transmitted6 packets received0% packet loss

round-trip min/avg/max = 0.5/1.0/2.1 ms


2. traceroute

tracerouteping255.255.255.0


Bb:192.168.3.4

192.168.2.1

Ac:192.168.2.5

Aa:192.168.2.4

ac

#/usr/sbin/traceroute 192.168.2.5

traceroute to c(192.168.2.5)30 hops max46 byte packets

1 c(166.111.4.5) 0.372 ms 0.153 ms 0.187 ms


ab

#/usr/sbin/traceroute 192.168.3.4

traceroute to b(192.168.3.4)30 hops max46 byte packets

1 192.168.2.1(192.168.2.1) 3.596 ms 0.690 ms 0.947 ms

2 b(192.168.3.4) 2.489 ms * 2.823 ms

()()


3. netstat

netstat-i

TX-ERRRX-ERRTX-DROPRX-DROPTX-OVRRX-OVR


netstat-a-nroute-nTCPUDP()netstat-a

netstat-tTCPUNIX domain sockets()

# netstat-t

TCP

# netstat-vat


13.4

Unix/LinuxLinuxLinux

LinuxWebDNSMailIA()VPN


13.4.1 Web

WebApacheLinuxWebNTLinux

WebHTTPApacheWebminminiserverLinuxWebPHPLinuxASPWeb


WebLinux

13.4.2

Eric AllmanBerkeleysendmailsendmail1983V51993EricV8


3(UA)(MTA)(DA)

sendmailPOPsendmailPOPPOPqmailLinuxsendmailPOP


13.4.3

DNSBindBind8DNSIPIPIP

DNSNISInternetIPInternetInternet


DNS()


13.5

TCP/IPNovellSPX/IPX,MachitoshAppleTalkDECDECNet(DECTCPOSI)TCP/IP



13-1 TCP/IPIPTCPFTP

13-2 A192.168.2.4255.255.255.0255.255.255.125

13-3 ifconfig

13-4 www.yahoo.com.cntraceroute


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