Knee. Tibiofemoral Joint. Largest and most complex Actually 3 joints within a single synovial cavity Laterally: tibiofemoral joint: modified hinge joint– between the lateral condyle of the femur, lateral meniscus and lateral condyle of the tibia
Laterally: tibiofemoral joint: modified hinge joint– between the lateral condyle of the femur, lateral meniscus and lateral condyle of the tibia
Medially: tibiofemoral joint: modified hinge joint – between the medial condyle of the femur, medial meniscus and medial condoyle of the tibia
Intermediate: patellofemoral joint: planar joint – between the patella and the patellar surface of the femur
The main muscles that move the knee joint are the
quadricep and hamstring muscles. The quadriceps
attaches to the patella, and the patellar tendon connect
this muscle to the front of the tibia. When the quadricep
muscles contract the knee extends. In contrast, when the
hamstring muscles contract, they pull the knee into flexion.
Mechanical knee problems can be caused by:
A direct blow or sudden movements that strain the knee
Osteoarthritis in the knee, resulting from wear and tear on its parts.
Inflammatory knee problems can be caused by: certain rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus). These diseases cause swelling which can damage the knees permanently.
Chondromalacia (KON-dro-muh-lay-she-uh) occurs when the cartilage of the knee cap softens. This can be caused by injury, overuse, or muscle weakness, or if parts of the knee are out of alignment. Chondromalacia can develop if a blow to the knee cap tears off a piece of cartilage or a piece of cartilage containing a bone fragment.