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History, Types and Current Status of University Ranking. Peter Okebukola, OFR. NUC Workshop on University Ranking. Concept of University Ranking. The idea of ranking universities began in the middle ages

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History types and current status of university ranking l.jpg

History, Types and Current Status of University Ranking

Peter Okebukola, OFR

NUC Workshop on University Ranking

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Concept of University Ranking

  • The idea of ranking universities began in the middle ages

  • Competition for scholars and funding propelled comparisons leading to classification into ranked categories

  • No institutional ranking system emerged as we have today

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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University of Modena, Modena, Italy, founded 1175

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, founded about 1208

Salamanca University, Salamanca, Spain, founded 1218

University of Padua, Padua, Italy, founded in 1222

University of Naples, Naples, Italy, founded 1224

University of Siena, Siena, Italy, founded 1240

University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal, founded in 1290 in Lisbon

Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain, founded 1293 in Alcalá de Henares

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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  • University of Rome La Sapienza, Rome, Italy, founded 1303

  • University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy, founded 1343

  • University of Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, founded 1348

  • University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy, founded 1361

  • Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland, founded 1364

  • University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, founded 1365

  • University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary, founded 1367

  • Ruprecht Karls University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, founded 1386

  • University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy, founded 1391

  • University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany, founded 1409

  • St. Andrews University, St. Andrews, Scotland, founded 1412

  • University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany, founded 1419

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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  • Universidad Autonoma de Santo Domingo, in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic is the oldest in the Americas, founded in 1538

  • University of Leiden, is the oldest in the Netherlands, founded in 1575

  • University of Santo Tomas, is in the Philippines, founded in 1611

  • Harvard University is the oldest university in the USA, founded in 1636

  • Ivan Franko National University of L'viv is the oldest university in the Ukraine, founded in 1661

  • Université Laval is the oldest university in Canada, founded 1663

  • University of Oslo is the oldest university in Norway, founded in 1811

Oldest university by region

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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  • Serampore College is the oldest university in Asia, for theological studies, founded in 1818

  • University of Sydney is the oldest university in Australia, founded 1850

  • University of Calcutta is the oldest university in south Asia, founded in 1857

  • University of Otago is the oldest university in New Zealand, founded 1863

  • University of Tokyo is the oldest university in Japan,founded 1877

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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1088 University of Bologna

1096 University of Oxford

1150University of Paris

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Nigeria

  • University of Ibadan, 1948

  • University of Ilorin, 1975

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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World University Ranking

Relatively recent (began 2002)

  • Times Higher Education-QS Ranking

  • Academic Ranking of World Universities

  • Webometrics Ranking

  • Professional Ranking of World Universities

  • Newsweek Ranking

  • Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Times Higher Education-QS World Ranking of Universities

  • Times Higher Education (THE) in association with Quacquarelli Symonds publishes annually since 2002, a list of top 500 universities in the world.

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Indicators for THE-QS World Ranking of Universities

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Academic Ranking of World Universities

  • Began June 2003

  • Compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s Institute of Higher Education

    Indicators

  • Alumni and staff winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals

  • Highly Cited Researchers in twenty-one broad subject categories

  • Articles published in Nature and Science, articles indexed in Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCIE) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI)

  • Academic performance with respect to the size of an institution

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Selection of Universities

  • Any university that has any Nobel Laureates, Fields Medals, Highly Cited Researchers, or papers published in Nature or Science.

  • Major universities of every country with significant amount of papers indexed by Thomson.

  • Number of universities scanned: >2000

  • Number of universities actually ranked: >1000

  • Number of ranked universities on our web: 500

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Ranking Criteria and Weights

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Definition of Indicator: Alumni

  • The total number of the alumni of an institution winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals.

  • Alumni are defined as those who obtain bachelor, Master’s or doctoral degrees from the institution.

  • Different weights are set according to the periods of obtaining degrees. The weight is 100% for alumni of 1991-2000, 90% for alumni of 1981-1990, 80% for alumni of 1971-1980, and so on.

  • If a person obtains more than one degrees from an institution, the institution is considered once only.

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Definition of Indicator: Award

  • The total number of the staff of an institution winning Nobel prizes in physics, chemistry, medicine and economics and Fields Medal in Mathematics.

  • Staff is defined as those who work at an institution at the time of winning the prize.

  • Different weights are set according to the periods of winning the prizes. The weight is 100% for winners since 2001, 90% for winners in 1991-2000, 80% for winners in 1981-1990, 70% for winners in 1971-1980, and so on.

  • If a winner is affiliated with more than one institution, each institution is assigned the reciprocal of the number of institutions.

  • For Nobel prizes, if a prize is shared by more than one person, weights are set for winners according to their proportion of prize.

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Definition of Indicator: HiCi

  • The number of highly cited researchers in 21 broad subject categories in life sciences, medicine, physical sciences, engineering and social sciences.

  • The definition of categories and detailed procedures can be found at the website of Institute of Scientific Information.

  • The total number of HiCi is about 5000, about 4000 of which is university staff.

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Definition of Indicator: N&S

  • The annual average number of articles published in Nature and Science in the past five years.

  • To distinguish the order of author affiliation, a weight of 100% is assigned for corresponding author, 50% for first author (second author if the first author is the same as corresponding author), 25% for the next author, and 10% for other authors.

  • Only publications of article type are considered.

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Definition of Indicator: PUB

  • Total number of articles indexed in Science Citation Index-expanded (SCIE) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) in the past year.

  • A weight of 2 is assigned to articles indexed in SSCI to compensate the bias against humanities and social sciences.

  • Only publications of article type are considered.

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Definition of Indicator: PCP

  • The sub-total scores of the above five indicators divided by the number of full-time equivalent academic staff.

  • If the number of academic staff for institutions of a country cannot be obtained, the total scores of the above five indicators is used.

  • For ranking 2005, the number of full-time equivalent academic staff is obtained for institutions in USA, China, Australia, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, and Belgium etc.

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Main Sources of Data

  • Nobel laureates:

    http://www.nobel.se

  • Fields Medals:

    http://www.mathunion.org/medals/

  • Highly-cited researchers:

    http://www.isihighlycited.com

  • Articles published in Nature and Science:

    http://www.isiknowledge.com

  • Articles indexed in SCIE and SSCI:

    http://www.isiknowledge.com

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Results of ARWU

  • http://www.arwu.org/

  • Top 500 universities in the world

  • Top 100 universities in North and Latin America

  • Top 100 universities in Asia/Oceania

  • Top 100 universities in Europe

  • Statistics of top universities by region and country

  • Percentage distribution of top universities by country as compared with the share of global population and GDP

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Webometrics Ranking

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Importance of Web Presence

  • The new Academic global market

    • Increased mobility of professors and alumni

    • International competition forhuman resources and funding

    • Getting prestige and visibility in the digital world

  • Web is the best showcase for Universities

    • All missions covered: teaching+research+transfer

    • Intangibles and the web contents

      • Freedom of teaching

      • Self-organisation and maturity

      • Access to resources

    • Scholarly (formal and informal) communication

    • Universal target groups

      • Colleagues all over the world

      • Prospective students worldwide

      • Economic interested stakeholders

      • General (huge) audiences

    • Richer and diversified contents at cheaper costs

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Webometrics Ranking Model

PAGES

RESEARCH

DOCUMENTS

TEACHING

USAGE

PAPERS

VISIBILITY

TRANSFER

MOTIVATIONS

IMPACT

ACTIVITY

MISSIONS

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Metrics of the Web

  • Contents size

  • Correlated with the knowledge production capabilities of the institution

  • number of potential authors (faculty members, staff, alumni)

  • available (access to) resources

  • internal and external policies

  • Quality resources

  • Difficult criteria

  • authoritativeness of the scholars (university)

  • peer review 2.0

  • formats (file types), language (lingua franca)

  • Visibility

  • Hypertext links networks

    • New motivations, many linkers (siters)

  • Open versus Closed (international) impact

  • Popularity

  • Users, visits, behavior, evolution, referrers

  • Methodological problems (global comparison no feasible)

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Methodology

  • Normalization

  • log (na+1)N: search engine (Google, Yahoo, Live, Exalead)

  • Na= ----------------------------- a: web domain

  • log (max(ni)+1)

  • Median method (Size)

  • Sa= ½ * ((Ga+ Ya + La +Ea) – max (Ga,Ya,La,Ea) - min (Ga,Ya,La,Ea))

  • Rich files

  • Ra= PDFa+ DOCa + PPTa + Psa

  • Ranking

  • Sa -> Ra(S)

  • Ra -> Ra(R)Va -> Ra(V) 1:1 WR= (50%*V) + (20%*S+15%*R+15%*Sc)

  • Sca -> Ra(Sc)

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Expected Results

  • North America

    • MIT (1st region & world), Stanford University (2nd), Harvard University (3rd)

    • University of Toronto (25th world)

    • Europe

    • Cambridge (1st region), Oxford (2nd), ETH Zurich (3rd)

    • Asia

    • Tokyo (61th world), National Taiwan (73th) and Beijing (133th) universities

    • Oceania

    • Australian National University (47th)

    • Latin America

    • Universidad NacionalAutónoma de México (59th world)

    • Universidade de Sao Paulo (114th world)

    • Africa

    • University of Cape Town (349th world)

WR (January 2008)

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Unexpected Results

  • Up

    • Pennsylvania State University (4th world)

      • CiteSeer, index of computer and information science papers

    • University of Wisconsin, Madison (7th world)

      • Internet Scout Project

    • Linkoping University (14th Europe, 79th world)

      • Lysator, the Academic Computer Society

    • Universitat Trier (50th Europe, 171th world)

      • DBLP, ComputerScienceBibliography

    • Down

    • CornellUniversity (10thworld)

      • Arxiv (www.arxiv.org, notunder cornell.edu)

    • California Institute of Technology (31thworld)

      • Jet PropulsionLaboratory(jpl.nasa.gov, notunder caltech.edu)

    • Princeton University (36thworld)

    • Yale University (41stworld)

    • Johns Hopkins University(42ndworld)

      • School of Medicine (hopkinsmedicine.org, notunder jhu.edu)

WR (January 2008)

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Comparative Analysis (I)

(2007)

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Comparative Analysis (II)

33

(2007)

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Comparative Analysis (III)

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP

(2007)


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Universities by Country

Top 200 universities in the Webometrics Ranking (July 2007)

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Academic Digital Divide

WR (January 2008)

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Regional distribution

Number of universities by region in the Webometrics Ranking (July 2007)

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Professional Ranking of World Universities

  • Started in 2007 by École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris

  • based on a single indicator- the number of alumni holding a post of chief executive officer or equivalent in one of the 500 leading international companies as reported in Fortune Global 500.

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Newsweek Ranking

  • Started August 2006 by Newsweek, the American weekly newsmagazine

  • Called the “Top 100 Global Universities”

  • combined selected indicators from two rankings (Academic Ranking of World Universities by Shanghai Jiao Tong University and The Times Higher Education), with the additional criterion of library holdings (number of volumes).

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities

  • Began in 2007

  • Produced by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan

  • Employs bibliometric methods to analyse and rank the scientific papers of the top 500 universities in the world.

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Non-Global (Regional and National) Ranking

  • Canada

  • India

  • Ireland

  • UK

  • US

  • ….

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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World Rankings

  • Webometrics Rank

  • First published in 2004. From 2006, two editions (January and July)

    • Higher education Institutions (mostly universities): +15,000 (Jan’08)

    • R&D related institutions (mostly research centers): +4,800 (Jan’08)

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Ranking for Whom?

  • Ranking is for all stakeholders in university education

  • include university administrators notably the Vice-Chancellor and his/her management, staff, students, parents, the proprietor, employers of labour, the media, the civil society especially what is popularly called the “common man”, the international community and funding agencies.

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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What Purpose Does Ranking Serve?-1

  • It provides information on relative standing of courses or programmes in a university relative to similar programmes in other universities

  • It provides information on overall standing of one university relative to others

  • Guidance for potential students on which institutions to go for particular course

  • University administrators are able to detect weaknesses in their programme delivery that needs to corrected

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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What Purpose Does Ranking Serve?- 2

  • Publicity for institutions that are well ranked. For instance, the Vice-Chancellor can make a boast that his/her university is among the top 10 in a programme. The Head of Department can flaunt the information that his/her medical programme is the best in the country

  • Fuel for the advocacy machinery of student and staff unions for improved funding for the system

  • Excuse for employers to deny employment to graduates

  • Supporting evidence for critics that graduates are half-baked if universities earn low ranking on league tables

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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What Purpose Does Ranking Serve?- 3

  • Indication of the quality of delivery in the university system

  • Stimulus for university administrators to buckle up to avoid the ridicule of being low down in the league table

  • Salmi and Saroyan (2007) report that in some countries authorities restrict scholarships for studies abroad to students admitted to highly ranked institutions; donor agencies and foundations also look at international rankings to inform their decision making

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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What Purpose Does Ranking Serve?- 4

  • League tables play an important role in deciding international collaborations. The VC of Ilorin has indicated desire to revive international linkages. It is not in doubt that he will steer Senate in the direction of collaborating with globally well-ranked universities.

  • It encourages institutions to re-examine their mission statements

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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University Ranking: The Nigerian Experience

  • 2001

  • 2002

  • 2003

  • 2004

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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University Ranking: The Nigerian Experience- Indicators (1)

  • Percentage of academic programmes of the university with full accreditation status:

  • Compliance with carrying capacity (measured by the degree of deviation from carrying capacity)

  • Proportion of the academic staff of the university at professorial level

  • Foreign content (staff): proportion of the academic staff of the university who are non-Nigerians

  • Foreign content (students): proportion of the students of the university who are non-Nigerians

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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University Ranking: The Nigerian Experience- Indicators (2)

  • Proportion of staff of the university with outstanding academic achievements

  • Research output

  • Student completion rate

  • Ph.D. graduate output for the year

  • Stability of university calendar

  • Student-to-PC Ratio

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Up, Up, UNILORIN…

  • 1st in Arts

  • 2nd in PhD Graduate Output

  • 3rd in Law

  • 3rd in Health Sciences;

  • 3rdin Science;

  • 5thin Education

  • 6th in Engineering/Technology

  • 6th in Research;

  • 6th in Quality of Academic Staff

  • 8th in Agriculture.

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Revised NUC Ranking Scheme for National, Regional and Global Application

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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What the Critics say about Ranking

“I imagine that all university heads broadly share my own view of these [league] tables. They are terrific and unquestioned when you score well and better than last time. They are fatally flawed and fundamentally unfair when you move in the opposite direction.”

…Howard Davies, Director, London School of Economics

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Controversy of Ranking

  • Any ranking is controversial and no ranking is absolutely objective.

  • University rankings become popular in many countries. Whether we agree or not, ranking systems clearly are here to stay.

  • The key issue then becomes how to improve ranking systems for the benefits of higher education (IREG).

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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How Nigerian Universities can Attain Respectable Ranking on Global League Tables (Project 2-2020)

  • Recommendations on Webometric Ranking

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Seven Imperatives for the Nigerian University System

  • Maintenance of a stable academic calendar

  • Stimulating a vibrant research culture

  • Improvement of facilities for teaching and research

  • Compliance with carrying capacity standards and avoidance of over-enrolment

  • Extermination of cultism

  • Encouraging universities to focus on programmes where they have strength and not duplicate courses offered elsewhere

  • Strong international linkage with foreign universities

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Cost of Elevating Nigerian Universities to Top Positions in Global Ranking

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Concluding Remarks

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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Thank you and God bless

OKEBUKOLA-NUC RANKING WORKSHOP


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