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Theory of Distance Education. Brief background. Overview. Astounding growth (Garrison, 1990) Glamorized by technology Poor conceptual framework fragmented lacks theoretical foundation lacks programmatic research. Garrison and Hayes (1990).

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Overview
Overview

  • Astounding growth (Garrison, 1990)

  • Glamorized by technology

  • Poor conceptual framework

    • fragmented

    • lacks theoretical foundation

    • lacks programmatic research


Garrison and hayes 1990
Garrison and Hayes (1990)

  • “Hodgepodge of ideas and practices taken from traditional classroom settings and imposed on learners who just happen to be separated physically from an instructor.”


Justification of distance education
Justification of Distance Education

  • Nontraditional education, attempted to define the important and unique attributers

    • Nontraditional learner (Rumble, 1986)

    • Separation (Rumble, 1986)

    • Planned & guided experience (Holmberg, 1986)

    • Two-way communications structure (Keegan, 1988)


Three historical approaches keegan 1986
Three Historical Approaches (Keegan 1986)

  • Theories of autonomy and independence

    • (Wedemeyer 1977) (Moore 1973)

  • Theory of Industrialization - distance education as an industrialized form of teaching

    • (Otto Peters 1972)

  • Theories of interaction and communication

    • (Baath 1982,87) and (Daniel and Marquis 1979)


Identified essential elements wedemeyer 1981
Identified Essential Elements (Wedemeyer 1981)

  • Independent learner

  • Greater student responsibility

  • Widely available instruction

  • Effective mix of media and methods

  • Adaptation to individual differences

  • Wide variety of start, stop, and learning times


Holmberg 1989 elements continued
Holmberg (1989) Elements continued

  • Meaningful learning

  • New learning anchored in the cognitive structure - not rote learning

  • Centered on interest

  • Teaching is facilitation of learning

  • Individualization of teaching and learning

  • Encouragement of critical thinking


Theoretical constructs
Theoretical Constructs

  • Transactional Distance (Moore 1990)

    • Determined by amount of dialogue between learner and instructor

    • Amount of structure that exists in the design of the course

    • More structure and less student-teacher

    • Dialog = greater transactional distance

    • Continuum of transactions

    • Blurs the distinctions between conventional and distance programs


Theoretical constructs continued
Theoretical Constructs continued

  • Saba and Shearer (1994) built on Moore’s model

    • As learner control and dialogue increase, transactional distance decreases

    • Implication for traditional classroom

    • Integrated telecommunication systems may permit a greater variety of transactions to occur


Theoretical constructs continued1
Theoretical Constructs continued

  • Interaction (Moore 1989)

    • Learner-instructor

    • Learner-content

    • Learner-learner

    • Learner-technology (Hillman, Hills, and Gunawardena 1994)


Theoretical constructs continued2
Theoretical Constructs continued

  • Control

    • Independence and learner control

      • Learners with internal locus of control, more likely to persist in education (Altmann & Arambasich, 1982; Rotter, 1989)


Theoretical constructs continued3
Theoretical Constructs continued

  • Social Context

    • How the social environment affects motivation, attitudes, teaching and learning

    • Notion that technology is culturally neutral

    • Social equality factor of the technology


Theoretical constructs continued4
Theoretical Constructs continued

  • Saba and Shearer (1994) - built on Moore’s model

    • As learner control and dialogue increase, transactional distance decreases

    • Implication for traditional classroom

    • Integrated telecommunication systems may permit a greater variety of transactions to occur


Theoretical constructs continued5
Theoretical Constructs continued

  • Interaction (Moore 1989)

    • Learner-instructor

    • Learner-content

    • Learner-learner

    • Learner-technology (Hillman, Hills, and Gunawardena 1994)


Theoretical constructs continued6
Theoretical Constructs continued

  • Control

    • Independence and learner control

      • Learners with internal locus of control, more likely to persist in education (Altmann & Arambasich, 1982; Rotter, 1989)


Theoretical constructs continued7
Theoretical Constructs continued

  • Social Context

    • How the social environment affects motivation, attitudes, teaching and learning

    • Notion that technology is culturally neutral

    • Social equality factor of the technology


Theoretical foundation of distance education
Theoretical Foundation of Distance Education

  • No theory base for the field “chaotic and confused”

  • No national policy

  • No consensus among educators of the value, the methodology or even the concept of distance education


Theoretical foundations continued
Theoretical Foundations continued

  • Call to stop emphasizing points of difference and identify common educational problems

  • Call for theoretic model based on constructivistic epistemology

  • Distinctions blur between traditional and distance education settings


4 square map of distance education technology options adapted from r johansen et al 1991 p 16
4-Square Map of distance education technology options (Adapted from R. Johansen et al,. 1991,p. 16.)

Different place, Same time

Teleconferencing

(audio, audiographics, video)

ITV, ISDN, Broadcast & Cable TV, radio

Print, audiocassettes, videocassettes,

computer conferencing, CAI/CBT,

interactive video, videotex

Any time

Any place

Emerging

technologies

Different place, Same time

Same time, Different place

Labs,

study centers

Same time, Different place

Face-to-face


Summary

Astounding growth

Glamorized by technology

Poor conceptual framework

Identified Essential Elements

Interaction (Moore 1989)

4-Square Map of distance education technology options

Summary


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