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### Properties of Production Functions

Lectures in Microeconomics-Charles W. Upton

A Tabular Presentation

Properties of Production Functions

A Production Isoquant

Properties of Production Functions

Second Production Isoquant

Properties of Production Functions

Third Production Isoquant

Properties of Production Functions

Some Points on Isoquants

Properties of Production Functions

Properties of Production Functions

- Constant Returns to Scale
- Diminishing Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution (MRTS)
- Diminishing Returns to Proportion

Properties of Production Functions

Constant Returns to Scale

Properties of Production Functions

Constant Returns to Scale

Properties of Production Functions

Constant Returns to Scale

Properties of Production Functions

Diminishing Marginal Rate of Technical Substitution (MRTS)

Properties of Production Functions

Diminishing MRTS

The fourth machine substitutes for one worker; the fifth substitutes for half a worker

Two machines are required to replace the second.

Properties of Production Functions

Diminishing MRTS

This is diminishing marginal rate of technical substitution (MRTS).

Properties of Production Functions

Diminishing Returns to Proportion

One factor fixed, one variable. A short run production function

Properties of Production Functions

Diminishing Returns to Proportion

Properties of Production Functions

Diminishing Returns to Proportion

Properties of Production Functions

Diminishing Returns to Proportion

Properties of Production Functions

Diminishing Returns to Proportion

Average product (AP) and marginal product (MP) are not the same.

Properties of Production Functions

Diminishing Returns to Proportion

They may initially rise but must eventually decline.

Properties of Production Functions

Diminishing Returns to Proportion

Marginal product can be zero but not negative

Properties of Production Functions

Summary

- Constant Returns to Scale
- Sometimes, but not always
- Diminishing MRTS
- Always

Properties of Production Functions

Summary

- Constant Returns to Scale
- Sometimes, but not always
- Diminishing MRTS
- Always
- Diminishing Returns to Proportion
- AP and MP eventually must decline.

Properties of Production Functions

The Final Word

K

Our production isoquants are very smooth; substitution is easy (but diminishing MRTS).

While substitution may not always be that smooth, economists would always stress the possibilities of substitution.

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Qo

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Properties of Production Functions

The Final Word

K

- Substitution possibilities abound
- There is more than one way to
- Skin a cat
- Bake a cake
- Make a widget

Q1

Qo

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Properties of Production Functions

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