Environmental Health during Disasters. Presenter: Shib Sekhar Datta Moderator: Prof. A M Mehendale . Framework of Presentation Rationale Importance of environmental health during disasters Technical Aspects Shelter and emergency settlements Water supply Sanitation Food safety
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Presenter: Shib Sekhar Datta
Moderator: Prof. A M Mehendale
Fig: The disaster management cycle
57% of the land vulnerable is to Earthquakes
28% is vulnerable to Droughts
12% is vulnerable to Floods
8% of the land is vulnerable to Cyclones
Susceptibility of various man made hazards
Rescue operation immemorial
In addition, environmental health workers are likely to be involved in providing:
Shelter and emergency settlements immemorial
(filtering, boiling, disinfecting, storing in closed containers, etc.).
(Providing temporary alternative sanitation facilities)
Water supply immemorial
Situations demanding emergency water supply response
semi permanent emergency settlements.
Rural emergencies immemorial
It is common to find in rural areas that a significant proportion of water supply installations are out of order, owing to long-term problems with maintenance and repair.
Urban emergencies immemorial
(Intensive use of a small number of water supplies vulnerable to contamination)
Assessment of damage immemorial
Safe water needs immemorial
15-20 litres per day per person
20-40 litres per day per person
20-30 litres per day per person
40-60 litres per day per person
30 litres per day per cow or camel
15 litres per day per goat or other small animal.
Human waste: Faeces
(e.g. chlorinating water supply, providing hand-washing facilities)
The first priority is to isolate and contain faeces.
Mass feeding centers immemorial
Facilities needed at mass feeding centers
Mosquitoes Malaria, yellow fever, dengue, viral encephalitis, Filariasis
Houseflies Diarrhoea, dysentery, conjunctivitis, typhoid fever, trachoma
Cockroaches Diarrhoea, dysentery, salmonellosis, cholera
Lice Endemic typhus, pediculosis, relapsing fever, trench fever
Bed bugs Severe skin inflammation
Ticks Rickettsial fever, relapsing fever, viral encephalitis
Rodent (mites) Rickettsial pox, scrub typhus
Rodent (fleas) Bubonic plague, endemic typhus
Rodents Rat bite fever, leptospirosis, salmonellosis
(specially after flood, eg: Surat and Mumbai)
Disease control settlements
Environmental management settlements
Leveling land, filling borrow pits and draining flooded areas, screening of water containers
Hygiene and personal protection settlements
Vaccines, drugs (e.g. for prophylaxis)
Pesticides (e.g. in impregnated mosquito nets)
Promoted by qualified health staff and used under their guidance.
Sick and wounded, children, elderly, pregnant women and people who lack immunity (including relief workers), need additional protection.
Preparedness and prevention
Public health surveillance and outbreak control settlements
(serious water- and sanitation-related epidemic diseases)
(Histories/Contact identification/source of disease)
Flexibility to rescue team settlements
Chemical incidents affect people in a number of ways:
Common measures to reduce the health risks of chemical incidents:
Mortuary services and handling of the dead settlements
Disposal of animal dead body/ Caracas specially in flood situation
Health promotion and community participation settlements
Public awareness raising /mobilization programmes play an essential part in reducing disaster vulnerability by:
From disaster and the effects of disaster.
Communications activities settlements
Current initiatives (Indian perspective) settlements
Functional Group 1 settlements: Hazard Mitigation
4 functional groups assigned with specific tasks are:
Functional Group 2: Preparedness and Capacity Building
Functional Group 3: Relief and Response
Functional Group 4: Administration and Finance
(National Disaster Management, Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India)
(All India Disaster Mitigation Institute, Ahmedabad, Gujarat)