Does Interviewing Method Matter?
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 31

Does Interviewing Method Matter? Comparing Consumer Satisfaction Results across Internet and RDD Telephone Samples PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 72 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Does Interviewing Method Matter? Comparing Consumer Satisfaction Results across Internet and RDD Telephone Samples. Forrest V. Morgeson III, Ph.D. Director of Research, American Customer Satisfaction Index Barbara Everitt Bryant, Ph.D. Research Scientist-Emerita, University of Michigan

Download Presentation

Does Interviewing Method Matter? Comparing Consumer Satisfaction Results across Internet and RDD Telephone Samples

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Does interviewing method matter comparing consumer satisfaction results across internet and rdd telephone samples

Does Interviewing Method Matter? Comparing Consumer Satisfaction Results across Internet and RDD Telephone Samples

Forrest V. Morgeson III, Ph.D.

Director of Research, American Customer Satisfaction Index

Barbara Everitt Bryant, Ph.D.

Research Scientist-Emerita, University of Michigan

Reg Baker

President, Market Strategies International

Presented at the 66th Annual American Association for Public Opinion Research Conference


Discussion agenda

Discussion Agenda

  • Overview: Research Questions and Findings

  • The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI)

  • Extant Research on Interviewing Method Differences

  • Data and Analysis Methods

  • Results and Findings

  • Conclusions and Implications


Research questions and findings

Research Questions and Findings

  • Research Questions: Does interview method matter? Do the results produced in a multi-industry consumer satisfaction study differ significantly across a sample collected through RDD/probability sampling and telephone interviewing, and one collected via online panel/nonprobability sampling and Internet interviewing?

  • Research Design: We utilize a multi-method sample of consumer satisfaction data, structural equation modeling techniques, and two tests of difference to investigate the significance of differences in survey responses across samples drawn and interviewed using these two methods

  • Findings: While some differences are observed, interview method only marginally impacts the means of the survey responses or the parameter estimates from the structural models. Overall, the findings suggest that mixed-method interviewing is feasible and reliable for consumer-oriented survey research projects


Discussion agenda1

Discussion Agenda

  • Overview: Research Questions and Findings

  • The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI)

  • Extant Research on Interviewing Method Differences

  • Data and Analysis Methods

  • Results and Findings

  • Conclusions and Implications


Overview of the acsi

Overview of the ACSI

  • Established in 1994, ACSI is the only standardized measure of customer satisfaction in the U.S. economy, covering approximately 225 companies in 45 industries and 10 economic sectors; companies measured account for roughly one-third of the U.S. GDP

  • 100+ departments and agencies of the U.S. federal government also measured on an annual basis, along with local and state government measures

  • Results from all surveys are published monthly in various media and on the ACSI website, www.theacsi.org


Structure of the acsi

Structure of the ACSI

National

ACSI

Utilities

Information

Accommodation &

Food Services

E-Business

PublicAdministration/

Government

Finance &Insurance

Retail Trade

E-Commerce

Transportation &Warehousing

Health Care & Social Assistance

Manufacturing/Durable Goods

Manufacturing/Nondurable Goods

EnergyUtilities

Newspapers

Motion Pictures

Broadcasting TV News

Software

Fixed LineTelephone Service

Wireless TelephoneService

Cable & Satellite TV

Hotels

Limited-Service

Restaurants

Full-Service

Restaurants

News &Information

Portals/

Search

Engines

Social Networking

Local Government

Federal Government

Banks

Life Insurance

Health

Insurance

Property &

Casualty

Insurance

Airlines

U.S.Postal Service

ExpressDelivery

Hospitals

Personal Computers

Electronics(TV/VCR/DVD)

Major Appliances

Automobiles& Light

Vehicles

Cellular Telephones

Food Manufacturing

Pet Food

Soft Drinks

Breweries

Cigarettes

Apparel

Athletic Shoes

Personal Care& CleaningProducts

Supermarkets

Gasoline Stations

Department &Discount Stores

Specialty Retail Stores

Health & Personal Care Stores

Retail

Brokerage

Travel


The acsi model and methodology

The ACSI Model and Methodology

•In ACSI methodology, customer satisfaction is imbedded in a system of relationships, and analyzed as part of a structural equation model. The model produces two critical pieces of data useful to researchers and firms/agencies:

•The model provides mean scores (on a 0-100 scale) for each measured composite or latent variable

  • •The model provides parameter estimates (or path coefficients) indicating what most strongly influences satisfaction, and in turn how satisfaction influences future consumer behaviors

Customer

Complaints

Perceived

Quality

Customer

Satisfaction

  • Overall

  • Customization

  • Reliability

  • Complaint Behavior

Perceived

Value

  • Price Given Quality

  • Quality Given Price

  • Satisfaction

  • Comparison w/ Ideal

  • Confirm/Disconfirm

  • Expectations

Customer

Expectations

Customer

Loyalty

  • Overall

  • Customization

  • Reliability

  • Repurchase Likelihood

  • Price Tolerance

  • (Reservation Price)


Acsi data collection

ACSI Data Collection

  • Each year, including all private sector, public sector and custom research projects, ACSI collects approximately 125,000 interviews of consumers

  • From 1994 through 2009, nearly all of this data (with a few exceptions for e-commerce companies) was collected over the telephone using random-digit-dial probability sampling and CATI

  • Beginning in 2010, and following pilot testing that produced promising results, ACSI moved to a multi-method interviewing approach, with roughly half the data for any measured company/government agency collected using RDD probability sampling and CATI, and the other half collected using a nonprobability panel of double opt-in respondents interviewed online


Discussion agenda2

Discussion Agenda

  • Overview: Research Questions and Findings

  • The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI)

  • Extant Research on Interviewing Method Differences

  • Data and Analysis Methods

  • Results and Findings

  • Conclusions and Implications


Extant research

Extant Research

  • While a handful of studies comparing results for samples interviewed online to samples interviewed over the telephone exist,* these studies have focused almost exclusively on political opinions, voter preference, etc.

  • There remains very little research into what differences (if any) are likely to be observed across these two interviewing methods for consumer-oriented data, where a significant portion of data collection and survey research is focused

*Chang, L. and J.A. Krosnick (2009). “National Surveys via RDD Telephone Interviewing Versus The Internet: Comparing Sample Representativeness and Response Quality,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 73(4), 641–678.

Fricker, S., M. Galesic, R. Tourangeau and T. Yan (2005). “An Experimental Comparison of Web and Telephone Surveys,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 69(3), 370-392.

Vannieuwenhuyze, J., G. Loosveldt and G. Molenberghs (2010). “A Method for Evaluating Mode Effects in

Mixed-Mode Surveys,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 74(5), 1027-1045.


Does interviewing method matter comparing consumer satisfaction results across internet and rdd telephone samples

Findings from the AAPOR Online Task Force

  • Findings from the AAPOR Online Task Force* suggest that there is no theoretical basis for assuming that samples drawn from nonprobability online panels are representative of a larger population, and that therefore results may differ when compared to an RDD probability sample interviewed over the telephone

  • However, this research also concludes there may be instances in which online panels are useful and reliable, and we conduct a series of empirical tests to see if customer satisfaction data (ACSI) is such a case

*Baker, R. et al. (2010). “Research Synthesis: AAPOR Report on Online Panels,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 74(4), 711–781.


Discussion agenda3

Discussion Agenda

  • Overview: Research Questions and Findings

  • The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI)

  • Extant Research on Interviewing Method Differences

  • Data and Analysis Methods

  • Results and Findings

  • Conclusions and Implications


Research questions

Research Questions

  • From the perspective of the ACSI project and its methodology, two questions regarding multi-method interviewing are most relevant and important:

  • Do mean scores exhibit significant differences between a sample interviewed online when compared to a sample interviewed using RDD/CATI?

  • Do model parameter estimates exhibit significant differences between a sample interviewed online when compared to a sample interviewed using RDD/CATI?


Does interviewing method matter comparing consumer satisfaction results across internet and rdd telephone samples

Data

  • To seek answers to our research questions, we utilize a sample of data consisting of approximately 9000 interviews

  • Roughly half of these cases were collected via Internet interviewing (from a sample balanced to Census demographics from a large online panel (the Research Now panel)), and the other half collected using RDD and CATI, allowing us to test the similarities/differences produced by these two interviewing methods

  • The ACSI model (shown earlier) was estimated independently for each industry and each interviewing method, producing distinct mean scores and estimates (path coefficients) facilitating these comparisons


Does interviewing method matter comparing consumer satisfaction results across internet and rdd telephone samples

Data

  • The data represent consumer responses to questions measuring satisfaction (and the other modeled variables) with companies and industries in six NAICS sectors (for more information on the companies included in the sample, see Appendix A):

    • Apparel manufacturing (Manufacturing/nondurable goods)

    • Personal computers (Manufacturing/durable goods)

    • Fast food restaurants (Food services)

    • Insurance (Finance and insurance)

    • Supermarkets (Retail)

    • Wireless phone service (Information)


Tests of difference

Tests of Difference

  • To test for significant differences in mean scores across the two interviewing methods for each ACSI variable in each of the industries included in the sample, independent sample t-tests were utilized

  • To test for significant differences in parameter estimates for the structural model for each of the industries included in the sample, chi-square difference tests were utilized, with parameters constrained to equality and significant chi-square statistics indicative of significant parameter estimate differences


Discussion agenda4

Discussion Agenda

  • Overview: Research Questions and Findings

  • The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI)

  • Extant Research on Interviewing Method Differences

  • Data and Analysis Methods

  • Results and Findings

  • Conclusions and Implications


Results and findings

Results and Findings

  • Across all of the tests – which included comparisons of 36 sets of mean scores across the two interviewing methods, and 54 sets of model parameter estimates – some significant differences were observed

  • In total, 36% of the mean scores (13 of 36) compared across the two modes exhibited significant differences. Scores skewed higher on the Internet, with 9 of 13 significant differences reflecting “better” ratings among Internet respondents (i.e. higher ratings, fewer complaints)

  • Moreover, 39% of the model parameter estimates (21 of 54) from the structural models compared across the two methods exhibited significant differences

  • (Two industry examples follow. All test results provided in Appendix A)


Example 1 supermarket industry results

Example 1: Supermarket Industry Results

  • For the tests for this industry, one variable mean score of the six tested was significantly different across the two samples, while two of nine parameter estimates were significantly different

*All variables scaled 0-100, worse to better rating; “Sig. Diff.” column reports significant difference between the

Telephone and Internet interview samples ; * = p<.05; ** = p<.01; ***p<.001.


Example 2 wireless industry results

Example 2: Wireless Industry Results

  • For the tests for this industry, four of the variable mean scores exhibited significant differences, with scores skewing higher (and complaint rate lower), and two of the parameter estimates exhibited significant differences

*All variables scaled 0-100, worse to better rating; “Sig. Diff.” column reports significant difference between the

Telephone and Internet interview samples ; * = p<.05; ** = p<.01; ***p<.001.


Results and findings1

Results and Findings

  • The above are “hard tests” of multi-method interviewing. As many projects (including ACSI) have not traded telephone-only for Internet-only interviewing, a “fairer” test is to compare the telephone interview results to the mixed-method, mixed-sample results

  • For these tests, the results are more promising. Looking only at differences in mean scores, of the 36 sets of means compared only 11% (4 of 36) exhibited significant differences

  • (Two industry examples follow. Full results for these tests are included in Appendix A)


Example 3 mixed sample vs telephone only

Example 3: Mixed-Sample vs. Telephone-Only

*All variables scaled 0-100, worse to better rating; “Sig. Diff.” column reports significant difference between the

Telephone and Internet interview samples ; * = p<.05; ** = p<.01; ***p<.001.


Discussion agenda5

Discussion Agenda

  • Overview: Research Questions and Findings

  • The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI)

  • Extant Research on Interviewing Method Differences

  • Data and Analysis Methods

  • Results and Findings

  • Conclusions and Implications


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • While some differences in both mean scores and model parameter estimates are exhibited when comparing telephone-only interviewing to Internet-only interviewing, the differences account for a minority in both cases

  • The results are even more promising when comparing mean scores for telephone-only and mixed-method interviewing; only a small fraction of the comparisons are significantly different in this case


Implications and future research

Implications and Future Research

  • These tests provide evidence for the feasibility and reliability of mixed-method sampling for consumer-oriented survey research projects

  • For projects working with this kind of data, both means scores and model estimates appear to be relatively stable across interviewing methods

  • However, because we examine only consumer-oriented data, those working with dissimilar types of data should perform tests similar to ours to examine the reliability of mixed-method interviewing, as results may vary

  • Research expanding the types of data tested should help market researchers determine the feasibility of multi-method interviewing for particular client engagements


Appendix a supplemental results and information

Appendix A: Supplemental Results and Information


Interview data by industry company

Interview Data by Industry/Company


Apparel and pc industries results

Apparel and PC Industries Results

*All variables scaled 0-100, worse to better rating; “Sig. Diff.” column reports significant difference between the

Telephone and Internet interview samples ; * = p<.05; ** = p<.01; ***p<.001.


Fast food and insurance industries results

Fast Food and Insurance Industries Results

*All variables scaled 0-100, worse to better rating; “Sig. Diff.” column reports significant difference between the

Telephone and Internet interview samples ; * = p<.05; ** = p<.01; ***p<.001.


Mixed method vs telephone only means tests 1

Mixed-Method vs. Telephone-Only Means Tests (1)

*All variables scaled 0-100, worse to better rating; “Sig. Diff.” column reports significant difference between the

Telephone and Internet interview samples ; * = p<.05; ** = p<.01; ***p<.001.


Mixed method vs telephone only means tests 2

Mixed-Method vs. Telephone-Only Means Tests (2)

*All variables scaled 0-100, worse to better rating; “Sig. Diff.” column reports significant difference between the

Telephone and Internet interview samples ; * = p<.05; ** = p<.01; ***p<.001.


  • Login