Central nervous system development
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Central Nervous System Development. Chelsea A. Iennarella ANS 536 – perinatology Spring 2014. Overview:. Prenatal CNS Development Period of the Ovum Period of the Embryo Period of the Fetus Post-Natal CNS Development Male vs. Female Brain. Lecture 03/26/2014: Epigenetic Changes

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Central Nervous System Development

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Central nervous system development

Central Nervous System Development

Chelsea A. Iennarella

ANS 536 – perinatology

Spring 2014


Central nervous system development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Overview

Overview:

  • Prenatal CNS Development

    • Period of the Ovum

    • Period of the Embryo

    • Period of the Fetus

  • Post-Natal CNS Development

  • Male vs. Female Brain

Lecture 03/26/2014:

Epigenetic Changes

CNS Abnormalities

Species Differences in CNS Development and Physiology

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Prenatal growth development

Prenatal Growth & Development:

  • Period of the Ovum:

    • fertilization through implantation

  • Period of the Embryo:

    • gastrulation through establishment of all major organ systems

  • Period of the Fetus:

    • maturation of organ systems through birth

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Period of the ovum

Period of the Ovum:

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Period of the ovum1

Period of the Ovum:

  • From the time of fertilization until implantation

    (GW 0-1).

    • Little or no increase in weight of embryo.

    • Characterized by reductive cell divisions; hyperplasia.

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Period of the embryo

Period of the Embryo:

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Period of the embryo1

Period of the Embryo:

  • From gastrulation through the establishment of all major organ systems (GW 2-15).

    • Formation of specific organs and tissues occurs.

    • All major structures and organ systems are established; heart and circulatory system can be considered functional.

    • Growth mostly resulting from hyperplasia.

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Human development video

Human Development Video:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UgT5rUQ9EmQ

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Cns development

CNS Development:

  • CNS development begins during the 3rd gestational week in humans.

    • Most rapid CNS development occurs during the 24th gestational week.

    • Brain is not fully developed until adulthood (early 20’s).

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Neurulation

Neurulation:

  • transformation of the neural plate into the neural tube

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Neural tube formation

Neural Tube Formation:

neural plate: a thickened plate of ectoderm that gives rise to the neural tube and crests

notochord: flexible rod-shaped structure, derived from the mesoderm, that supports the primitive axis of the embryo

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Neural tube formation1

Neural Tube Formation:

  • neural crest: transient, multipotent, migratory cell population

    • Cells contribute to many different systems including peripheral nervous systems, skin, skeletal, adrenal glands, and GI tract

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Period of the fetus

Period of the Fetus:

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Period of the fetus1

Period of the Fetus:

  • From maturation of organ systems through birth (GW 16-38).

    • Characterized by a large increase in weight and large increase in nutrient demand.

    • Growth is mostly resulting from hypertrophy.

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

  • prosencephalon: forebrain

  • mesencephalon: midbrain

  • rhombencephalon: hindbrain

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

  • telencephalon: mature cerebrum

  • diencephalon: thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary

  • mesencephalon: midbrain

  • metencephalon: pons and the cerebellum

  • myelencephalon: medulla oblongata

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Development of the embryonic brain

Development of the Embryonic Brain:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mMDPP-Wy3sI

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Post natal cns development

Post-Natal CNS Development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Post natal brain development

Post-Natal Brain Development:

  • Infant’s brain is roughly 25% of its adult size at birth.

    • 75% developed by one year of age

    • 80-90% developed by three years of age

  • Full maturation does not occur until adulthood in humans (roughly 20-25 years old).

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Developmental structures of importance

Developmental Structures of Importance

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Limbic system

Limbic System:

  • Collection of several structures located in

    the inner brain beneath the cortex.

    • prefrontal cortex

    • hypothalamus

    • amygdala

    • hippocampus

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Prefrontal cortex

Prefrontal Cortex:

  • Location of most advanced cognitive function

    • Attention, motivation, goal-directed behavior

  • Last area of the brain to mature

    • Undergoes important developmental changes even into adolescence

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Hypothalamus

Hypothalamus:

  • Regulation of stress response by signaling the pituitary to secrete ACTH

    • stimulates secretion of stress hormone, cortisol, from adrenal cortex

    • stimulates secretion of adrenaline from the adrenal medulla

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Amygdala

Amygdala:

  • Evaluates threats and triggers the body’s response to stress

    • Allows for generation of learned emotional responses to a variety of situations

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Hippocampus

Hippocampus:

  • Memory formation and spatial learning.

    • Declarative memory; the memory of facts or events

    • Important in recognition

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Synapses neurons

Synapses & Neurons:

  • The brain processes information by forming networks of neurons.

    • Communicate using electrical and chemical signals.

  • Messages are passed between neurons at connections called synapses.

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Synaptic pruning

Synaptic Pruning:

  • For first three years of life, a child’s brain has roughly twice as many synapses and an adult.

    • Synapses used frequently become stronger.

    • Synapses rarely used are more likely to be eliminated.

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Brain development video

Brain Development Video:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mMDPP-Wy3sI

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Continued brain development

Continued Brain Development:

  • During the second year of life, the brain’s language center develops more synapses and becomes more interconnected

    • Vocabulary often quadrupled during this time.

  • Rapid increase in rate of myelination.

  • Emotional awareness and self awareness develop.

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Pinky the brain

Pinky & the Brain:

  • Nature vs. Nurture

    • Genes lay foundation for brain but final wiring is caused by an environmental effect

  • Laboratory mice are virtually genetically identical.

    • Dramatic difference seen in IQ

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Differences between male female developing brain

Differences Between Male & Female Developing Brain

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Differences during embryonic development

Differences During Embryonic Development:

  • Differences seen as early as GW 26

    • Thickening of CC in females that remained post birth

  • Males outperformed females on motor and spatial cognitive tasks; females were faster in tasks of emotion identification and nonverbal reasoning (Satterthwaite et al. 2014)

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Central nervous system development

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Overview1

Overview:

CNS development begins in utero and continues into adulthood.

Several transient structures undergo morphological and functional changes to give rise to a more mature system.

Interaction between genetics and environment determine final CNS capacity and functionality.

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Next lecture

Next Lecture:

Epigenetic Changes Effecting the CNS

CNS Abnormalities

Species Differences in CNS Development and Physiology

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


Questions

Questions:

ANS 536 - Perinatology - CNS Development


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