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P3 panel: exozodiacal disks. O. Absil & C. Eiroa with inputs from A. Roberge , D . Defrère , C . Beichman , W . Danchi , J .-C. Augereau, etc. Dust in planetary systems. We all live in a debris disk! Asteroid collisions Comet outgassing

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P3 panel exozodiacal disks

P3 panel: exozodiacal disks

O. Absil & C. Eiroa

with inputs fromA. Roberge, D. Defrère, C. Beichman, W. Danchi, J.-C. Augereau, etc.


Dust in planetary systems
Dust in planetary systems

  • We all live in a debris disk!

    • Asteroid collisions

    • Comet outgassing

  • Dust is luminous (much more than the Earth)

  • Dust is expected in any planetary system

Kuiper belt: 40 K, 50 AU

Zodiacal disk: 300 K, 1 AU


Dust not uniformly distributed
Dust not uniformly distributed

Observations

Simulations

Earth at 1 AU

Stark & Kuchner 2008


The exozodi issue visible imaging
The exozodi issue: visible imaging

  • 10-100 zoditolerable for closesttargets

  • Asymmetriesneedthorough investigation

2m

4m

6m

8m

12m


The exozodi issue ir interferometry
The exozodi issue: IR interferometry

  • Shot noise: 100 zodi tolerable in average

    • Preserves 75% of mission outcome

  • Asymmetries: ~10 zodi tolerable


But do we really care
But ... do we really care?

  • If Solar system is the rule, “Earth explorer” could just skip unsuitable systems

    • Can afford to loose some time

    • EZs interesting on their own

  • What if EZ mode is around 10 zodi? 100 zodi?

    • Is the distribution log-normal at all? Bimodal?

100 zodi?

Bad systems

10 zodi?

< 1 zodi?

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

1000


What we know exo kuiper belts
What we know: exo-Kuiper belts

100 × solar

  • Detected since 1984

    • IRAS, ISO, Spitzer

    • Sensitivity ~ 100 × solar

  • Herschel

    • Down to 1 ×solar

  • Actual distribution will soon be known for the cold parts

  • What about warm parts?

Bryden et al. 2006


What we want to know exozodis
What we want to know: exozodis

  • Mid-infrared most suited

    • Photometry

      • Spitzer: IRS, MIPS

    • Imaging

      • 10-m telescopes, (JWST)

    • Interferometry

      • Keck Nuller, VLTI/MIDI

  • Near-infrared can help

    • Interferometry

      • CHARA/FLUOR, VLTI/VINCI


Exozodis where we stand
Exozodis: where we stand

  • IRS, MIPS

    • 1000 zodi at 3-σ

    • Large sample

    • ~2% of systems

  • Keck Interferometer Nuller

    • 300 zodi at 3-σ

    • Small sample (on-going)

  • K-band interferometry

    • 1000 zodi at 3-σ

    • Small sample (on-going)

    • ~20% of MS stars with large amount of hotdust??

    • EZs≠ from solar zodi??

KIN

300 zodi

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

1000


What needs to be done
Whatneeds to bedone?

  • Solution #1

    • Use models to connect Kuiper beltswithexozodis

    • Problem: planetary system architecture matters!

  • Solution #2

    • Survey exozodisto buildhistogram

    • Whatshouldbe the goal sensitivity?

      • Probablyaround 30 zodi (3-σ)

  • Solution #3

    • Characteriseexozodisaround all identifiedtargets

      • (need to wait for SIM or RV detections, and to reach 10 zodi)


What does it take
Whatdoesittake?

  • LBTI

    • Expect ~30 zodiat 3-σ

    • Survey starting> 2012

    • 60 targets: sufficient?

  • Other possible nullers

    • ALADDIN

    • Balloon

    • FKSI/Pegase

  • Other instruments

    • Small coronagraphs: needto beinvestigated


Conclusions recommendations
Conclusions / recommendations

  • Invest in modelling

    • Probability distribution (log-normal? bimodal? other?)

    • How deep is enough? 30 zodi?

    • Asymmetries: better predictions needed!

  • Invest in LBTI

    • Could greatly reduce the exozodi problem if it lives up to the expectations

  • Support development of other exozodi finders

    • ALADDIN, balloon, FKSI (share the same payload)

    • Small coronagraphs?


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