Chapter 1
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Chapter 1. The Study of Chemistry. Topics. Introduction Scientific Method Classifications of Matter Properties of Matter Units of Measurement – Metric system Temperature Conversion Metric Conversion (Prefixes) Accuracy vs. Precision Significant Figures Density. States of Matter.

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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

The Study of Chemistry


Topics

Topics

  • Introduction

  • Scientific Method

  • Classifications of Matter

  • Properties of Matter

  • Units of Measurement – Metric system

  • Temperature Conversion

  • Metric Conversion (Prefixes)

  • Accuracy vs. Precision

  • Significant Figures

  • Density


States of matter

States of Matter

  • Solid

  • Liquid

  • Gas

  • Plasma


Chapter 1

ATOM

  • Is the simplest unit of matter.


Definitions

Definitions

  • Elements – can’t be decomposed further into simpler substances

  • - 111 elements presently

  • - Ds (element 110)

  • - Rg (element 111)

  • Compound – combination of 2 or more elements


Definitions1

Definitions

  • Mixtures – combinations of 2 or more substances (ex. sugar in water)

  • 2 Types of Mixtures

  • 1.Homogenous Mixtures (solutions) = 1 phase

  • 2. Heterogeneous Mixtures = > 2 phases


Solutions

SOLUTIONS

  • Homogeneous mixtures are called SOLUTIONS.


Solution

Solution

  • Solution – homogenous mixture

  • A solution is not necessarily a liquid. Can be gas or solid.


Physical vs chemical properties

Physical vs. Chemical Properties

  • Physical properties – can be measured w/o changing identity and composition of substance (ex. Boiling pt.,freezing pt., color, odor, density, hardness)

  • Chemical properties – describe how substance reacts or changes to form other compounds (ex. Flammability, toxicity)


Changes of state and properties

Changes of State and Properties

  • Physical changes – does not change composition of compound

  • Chemical changes – converts to a different chemical substance

  • Intensive Properties – independent of amt. (ex. Density, Temperature, Melting Pt)

  • Extensive Properties – dependent on amt. (ex. Mass, Volume)


Units of measurement

Units of Measurement

  • Mass – grams; kilogram

  • Length – centimeter; meter

  • Volume – milliliter or cubic centimeter (cm3)

  • Temperature – Celcius; Kelvin


Prefixes in metric system

Prefixes in Metric System

  • Mega-million

  • Kilo-1,000

  • Hecto-100

  • Deka-10

  • ----- - 1 (liter, gram, meter)

  • Deci-1/10 or 0.1

  • Centi-1/100 or 0.01

  • Milli-1/1000 or 0.001


Temperature conversions

Temperature Conversions

  • 0 oC = 273.15 K

  • oF = 1.8 oC+32


Things to remember

Things to Remember!

  • 1 milliliter = 1 cc

  • 1000 milliliter = 1 liter

  • 0 oC = 32 oF = 273.15 K


Precision vs accuracy

Precision vs Accuracy

  • Accuracy – when acquired value agrees with true value

  • Precision – when acquired values exhibit reproducibility


Significant figures

Significant Figures

  • More significant figures = more certainty

  • Helps in determining how to round measured values and still precise


Significant figures1

SIGNIFICANT FIGURES

  • In counting and definitions, there are an infinite number of sig figs

  • In measurements, the number of sig figs consists of all certain and the first uncertain digits

  • Unit conversions do not determine # of sig. figs.


Rules of significant figures

Rules of Significant Figures

  • 1.Non-zero integers always count.

    • Ex. 1234.5 grams = 5 Sig. Figs.

  • 2. Captive zeros are always significant.

    • Ex. 100.3 grams = 4 Sig. Figs.


  • Rules of significant figures1

    Rules of Significant Figures

    • 3. Leading zeros are NEVER significant.

      • Ex. 0.6780 grams = 4 Sig. Figs.

  • 4. Trailing zeroes are significant ONLY if there is a decimal point

    • Ex. 12.0 grams = 3 Sig. Figs

    • 120 grams = 2 Sig. Figs


  • Rules of significant figures2

    Rules of Significant Figures

    • 5. Exact numbers (obtained by counting) are infinite and do not determine the number of significant figures.

      • Example: 4 cows = ?


    Determine the of sig fig

    Determine the # of Sig. Fig.

    • 200.0

    • 1050

    • 3003

    • 0.0006

    • 10,000

    • 0.5


    Rules of significant figures3

    Rules of Significant Figures

    • Multiplication/Division

      • Answer will have the same # of sig figs as the value with the least # of sig figs

        • Ex: 3.8 x 200.0 = 2 Sig. Figs.


    Rules of significant figures4

    Rules of Significant Figures

    • Addition/Subtraction

    • Answer has the same # of decimal places as the number with the least # of decimal places

    • Ex. 3.1 + 2.500 + 5.76 = 11.4


    Order of operations

    Order of Operations

    • Parenthesis

    • Multiplication/division

    • Addition/subtraction


    Rounding

    Rounding

    • Look only to the right of the number you are rounding to:

    • - If 5 or more, round up

    • - If less than 5, round down


    General rule

    General Rule

    • Carry ALL figures through to the end of a problem. Round the final answer to the correct number of significant figures


    Problem

    Problem

    • Indicate the number of sig. figs. in each of the following measured quantities:

    • A. 358 kg

    • B. 0.054 s

    • C. 6.3050 cm

    • D. 0.0105 L

    • E. 7.0500 x 10-3 m3


    Problem1

    Problem

    • Round each of the following numbers to 4 sig. figs. And express the result in standard exponential notation.

    • A. 102. 53070

    • B. 656, 980

    • C. 0.008543210

    • D. 0.000257870

    • E. - 0. 0357202


    Problem2

    Problem

    • Carry out the following operations and express the answer with the appropriate number of sig. figs.

    • A. 12.0550 + 9.05

    • B. 257.2 – 19.789

    • C. (6.21 x 103)(1.1050)

    • D. 0.0577 / 0.753


    Density

    Density

    • Is the amount of mass in a unit volume of the substance

    • Is affected by Temperature.

      • The higher the temp., the lower the density.

        D = mass of substance =grams volume of substancemL or cm3


    Density1

    Density

    • Density = massvolume=grammL


    Different ways of calculating volume

    Different ways of calculating volume

    • I. For solids with regular shapes:

    • A. For a cube: Vcube = s3

    • B. For a rectangular solid, V = L x W x H

    • C. For a cylinder: V= pr2h

    • D. For a sphere: V = 4/3 pr3


    Different ways of calculating volume1

    Different ways of calculating volume

    • II. For an Irregular Solid

    • Water displacement


    Different ways of calculating volume2

    Different ways of calculating volume

    • III. For a liquid

    • Use of graduated cylinder, beaker, pipet or buret.


    Problem3

    Problem

    • A cube of osmium metal 1.500 cm on a side has a mass of 76.31 grams at 25 oC. What is its density in g/cm3 at this temperature?


    Problem4

    Problem

    • The density of titanium metal is 4.51 g/cm3 at 25 oC. What mass of titanium displaces 65.8 mL of water at 25 oC?


    Problem5

    Problem

    • The density of benzene at 15 oC is 0.8787 g/mL. Calculate the mass of 0.1500 L of benzene at this temperature.


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