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Chapter 1. The Study of Chemistry. Topics. Introduction Scientific Method Classifications of Matter Properties of Matter Units of Measurement – Metric system Temperature Conversion Metric Conversion (Prefixes) Accuracy vs. Precision Significant Figures Density. States of Matter.

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chapter 1

Chapter 1

The Study of Chemistry

topics
Topics
  • Introduction
  • Scientific Method
  • Classifications of Matter
  • Properties of Matter
  • Units of Measurement – Metric system
  • Temperature Conversion
  • Metric Conversion (Prefixes)
  • Accuracy vs. Precision
  • Significant Figures
  • Density
states of matter
States of Matter
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
  • Plasma
slide4
ATOM
  • Is the simplest unit of matter.
definitions
Definitions
  • Elements – can’t be decomposed further into simpler substances
  • - 111 elements presently
  • - Ds (element 110)
  • - Rg (element 111)
  • Compound – combination of 2 or more elements
definitions1
Definitions
  • Mixtures – combinations of 2 or more substances (ex. sugar in water)
  • 2 Types of Mixtures
  • 1. Homogenous Mixtures (solutions) = 1 phase
  • 2. Heterogeneous Mixtures = > 2 phases
solutions
SOLUTIONS
  • Homogeneous mixtures are called SOLUTIONS.
solution
Solution
  • Solution – homogenous mixture
  • A solution is not necessarily a liquid. Can be gas or solid.
physical vs chemical properties
Physical vs. Chemical Properties
  • Physical properties – can be measured w/o changing identity and composition of substance (ex. Boiling pt.,freezing pt., color, odor, density, hardness)
  • Chemical properties – describe how substance reacts or changes to form other compounds (ex. Flammability, toxicity)
changes of state and properties
Changes of State and Properties
  • Physical changes – does not change composition of compound
  • Chemical changes – converts to a different chemical substance
  • Intensive Properties – independent of amt. (ex. Density, Temperature, Melting Pt)
  • Extensive Properties – dependent on amt. (ex. Mass, Volume)
units of measurement
Units of Measurement
  • Mass – grams; kilogram
  • Length – centimeter; meter
  • Volume – milliliter or cubic centimeter (cm3)
  • Temperature – Celcius; Kelvin
prefixes in metric system
Prefixes in Metric System
  • Mega - million
  • Kilo - 1,000
  • Hecto - 100
  • Deka - 10
  • ----- - 1 (liter, gram, meter)
  • Deci - 1/10 or 0.1
  • Centi - 1/100 or 0.01
  • Milli - 1/1000 or 0.001
temperature conversions
Temperature Conversions
  • 0 oC = 273.15 K
  • oF = 1.8 oC + 32
things to remember
Things to Remember!
  • 1 milliliter = 1 cc
  • 1000 milliliter = 1 liter
  • 0 oC = 32 oF = 273.15 K
precision vs accuracy
Precision vs Accuracy
  • Accuracy – when acquired value agrees with true value
  • Precision – when acquired values exhibit reproducibility
significant figures
Significant Figures
  • More significant figures = more certainty
  • Helps in determining how to round measured values and still precise
significant figures1
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES
  • In counting and definitions, there are an infinite number of sig figs
  • In measurements, the number of sig figs consists of all certain and the first uncertain digits
  • Unit conversions do not determine # of sig. figs.
rules of significant figures
Rules of Significant Figures
  • 1. Non-zero integers always count.
      • Ex. 1234.5 grams = 5 Sig. Figs.
  • 2. Captive zeros are always significant.
      • Ex. 100.3 grams = 4 Sig. Figs.
rules of significant figures1
Rules of Significant Figures
  • 3. Leading zeros are NEVER significant.
      • Ex. 0.6780 grams = 4 Sig. Figs.
  • 4. Trailing zeroes are significant ONLY if there is a decimal point
      • Ex. 12.0 grams = 3 Sig. Figs
      • 120 grams = 2 Sig. Figs
rules of significant figures2
Rules of Significant Figures
  • 5. Exact numbers (obtained by counting) are infinite and do not determine the number of significant figures.
      • Example: 4 cows = ?
determine the of sig fig
Determine the # of Sig. Fig.
  • 200.0
  • 1050
  • 3003
  • 0.0006
  • 10,000
  • 0.5
rules of significant figures3
Rules of Significant Figures
  • Multiplication/Division
    • Answer will have the same # of sig figs as the value with the least # of sig figs
      • Ex: 3.8 x 200.0 = 2 Sig. Figs.
rules of significant figures4
Rules of Significant Figures
  • Addition/Subtraction
  • Answer has the same # of decimal places as the number with the least # of decimal places
  • Ex. 3.1 + 2.500 + 5.76 = 11.4
order of operations
Order of Operations
  • Parenthesis
  • Multiplication/division
  • Addition/subtraction
rounding
Rounding
  • Look only to the right of the number you are rounding to:
  • - If 5 or more, round up
  • - If less than 5, round down
general rule
General Rule
  • Carry ALL figures through to the end of a problem. Round the final answer to the correct number of significant figures
problem
Problem
  • Indicate the number of sig. figs. in each of the following measured quantities:
  • A. 358 kg
  • B. 0.054 s
  • C. 6.3050 cm
  • D. 0.0105 L
  • E. 7.0500 x 10-3 m3
problem1
Problem
  • Round each of the following numbers to 4 sig. figs. And express the result in standard exponential notation.
  • A. 102. 53070
  • B. 656, 980
  • C. 0.008543210
  • D. 0.000257870
  • E. - 0. 0357202
problem2
Problem
  • Carry out the following operations and express the answer with the appropriate number of sig. figs.
  • A. 12.0550 + 9.05
  • B. 257.2 – 19.789
  • C. (6.21 x 103)(1.1050)
  • D. 0.0577 / 0.753
density
Density
  • Is the amount of mass in a unit volume of the substance
  • Is affected by Temperature.
    • The higher the temp., the lower the density.

D = mass of substance = grams volume of substance mL or cm3

density1
Density
  • Density = mass volume = gram mL
different ways of calculating volume
Different ways of calculating volume
  • I. For solids with regular shapes:
  • A. For a cube: Vcube = s3
  • B. For a rectangular solid, V = L x W x H
  • C. For a cylinder: V= pr2h
  • D. For a sphere: V = 4/3 pr3
different ways of calculating volume1
Different ways of calculating volume
  • II. For an Irregular Solid
  • Water displacement
different ways of calculating volume2
Different ways of calculating volume
  • III. For a liquid
  • Use of graduated cylinder, beaker, pipet or buret.
problem3
Problem
  • A cube of osmium metal 1.500 cm on a side has a mass of 76.31 grams at 25 oC. What is its density in g/cm3 at this temperature?
problem4
Problem
  • The density of titanium metal is 4.51 g/cm3 at 25 oC. What mass of titanium displaces 65.8 mL of water at 25 oC?
problem5
Problem
  • The density of benzene at 15 oC is 0.8787 g/mL. Calculate the mass of 0.1500 L of benzene at this temperature.
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