This course is basically about silicon chip fabrication, the technologies used to manufacture ICs. INTRODUCTION. It is not sufficient any longer to think a silicon oxidation simply a chemical reaction between silicon and oxygen that grows SiO2.
chemical reaction between silicon and oxygen that grows SiO2.
Today we must understand that detailed bonding between silicon
and oxygen atoms and kinetics that drive this reaction on atomic basis.
1940s - setting the stage - the initial inventions that made integrated circuits possible.
In 1945, Bell Labs established a group to develop a semiconductor replacement for the vacuum tube. The group led by William Shockley, included, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and others.
In 1947 Bardeen and Brattain and Shockley succeeded in creating an amplifying circuit utilizing a point-contact "transfer resistance" device that later became known as a transistor.
In 1951 Shockley developed the junction transistor, a more practical form of the transistor.
By 1954 the transistor was an essential component of the telephone system and the transistor first appeared in hearing aids followed by radios.
2 simply aThe transistor invented at Bell lab. in 1947
In 1956 the importance of the invention of the transistor by Bardeen, Brattain and Shockley was recognized by the Nobel Prize in physics.
3 simply a1958 - Integrated circuit invented
September 12th 1958 Jack Kilby at Texas instrument had built a simple oscillator IC with five integrated components (resistors, capacitors, distributed capacitors and transistors)
In 2000 the importance of the IC was recognized when Kilby shared the Nobel prize in physics with two others. Kilby was sited by the Nobel committee "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit
a simple oscillator IC
4 simply a1959 - Planar technology invented
5 simply aIC Fabrication Technology: History (cont.)
6 simply a1963 - CMOS invented
7 simply a1965 - Moore's law
8 simply a1971 - Microprocessor invented
9 simply a1993-first Pentium processor invented
10 simply a2000 - Intel Pentium 4
11 simply a
12 simply aDie size trends
Microprocessor trends simply a
14 simply a
Crystalline or contaminate defects will kill the operation of an IC, so it is imperative that the silicon is ultra-pure. In order to create the best possible quality of silicon, a pure layer of silicon is grown on the raw wafer via an epitaxial growth process. This is known as the epi-layer.
This layer is very thin - approximately 3 percent or less of the wafer thickness. As device complexity grows, the need for epi-wafers increases.
Basic lithography process flow of an IC, so it is imperative that the silicon is ultra-pure. In order to create the best possible quality of silicon, a pure layer of silicon is grown on the raw wafer via an epitaxial growth process. This is known as the epi-layer.
Defects kill yield and drive up manufacturing cost, so defect inspection is vital in the Fab.
Wafer probe or test is the first time that chips are tested to see if they function as they were designed to do.
Redundancy Repair is a process step almost exclusively used for memory chips
each pad on the die is connected to a corresponding pin on the package frame via a thin gold or aluminum wire (approx. 0.001" diameter).