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Work with Performance Equation to Optimize your Score!. Weight Structural analysis, failure analysis, load impact when lift starts (Use Excel) Height Structure geometry, pulley placement (Use Solid Works, ACAD, Excel) Time Ask Dr. Head! Cost

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Work with performance equation to optimize your score

Work with Performance Equation to Optimize your Score!

  • Weight

    • Structural analysis, failure analysis, load impact when lift starts (Use Excel)

  • Height

    • Structure geometry, pulley placement (Use Solid Works, ACAD, Excel)

  • Time

    • Ask Dr. Head!

  • Cost

    • Mass and $/unit mass aluminum and plastic, energy cost (Use Excel)

  • LCA

    • Mass aluminum and plastic, disposal methods (ECO-it)


Life cycle assessment

Life Cycle Assessment

Sophomore Clinic

Fall 2003

(With thanks to Dr. Jansson and Hesketh)


Overview

Overview

  • Why care about the environment?

  • Environmental Problems

  • Basic Environmental Design

  • Life Cycle Assessment

    • Hoistinator

    • Eco-IT


Intergenerational responsibility

Intergenerational Responsibility

The Earth belongs…to the living…No man can by natural right oblige the lands he occupied, or the persons who succeeded him in that occupation, to the payment of debts contracted by him. For if he could, he might, during his own life, eat up the usufruct [products] of the lands for several generations to come, and then the lands would belong to the dead and not the living.

-Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to James Madison, 1789


Why should engineers care about the environment

Why Should Engineers Care about the Environment?

  • Regulations

  • Money

  • Ethics


Engineers and environmental regulations

Engineers and Environmental Regulations

Major Laws/Amendments

Environmental Regulations

Bishop, “Pollution Prevention: Fundamentals and Practice”, McGraw-Hill, 2000

-Robert Hesketh


Money

Money

  • Cost of clean up

    • 2,000 to 4,500 contaminated sites

    • $100 to $165 Billion

    • ~$2 Billion / year

  • Cost avoidance

    • Lower material / energy costs

    • Lower waste disposal costs


Global warming and related impacts

Global Warming and Related Impacts

Materials

Energy

Cause and Effect Chain

Products

Process of Concern

greenhouse

gas emissions

CO2, CH4, N2O

climate change;

sea level change

human mortality

or life adjustments

Contribution to global

Warming; Phipps, NPPC,

http://www.snre.umich.edu/nppc/

Climate Change 1995, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, WMO and UNEP, Cambridge University Press, 1996.

-Robert Hesketh


Stratospheric ozone and related impacts

Stratospheric Ozone and Related Impacts

Cause and Effect Chain

Materials

Energy

Products

Process of Concern

ozone depleting

substances

CFCs, HCFCs

human mortality

or life adjustments

ecosystem damage

ozone layer loss

increase in uv

Toxics Release Inventory Data

Climate Change 1995, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, WMO and UNEP, Cambridge University Press, 1996.

-Robert Hesketh


Smog formation and related impacts

Smog formation and related impacts

Cause and Effect Chain

Materials

Energy

Products

Process of Concern

human/ecological

damage from O3

and other oxidants

NOx and volatile

organic substances

photochemical

oxidation reactions

1 - Chemical & Allied Processing

2 - Petroleum & Related Industries

NOx

VOCs

NOx

1997

Miscellaneous

3 - Metals Processing, 4 - Other Industrial Processes

5 - Solvent Utilization, 6 - Storage & Transportation

7 - Waste Disposal & Recycling

Transportation

Industrial Processes

VOCs

1997

Fuel Combustion

National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1997, U.S. EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, http://www.epa.gov/oar/aqtrnd97/chapter2.pdf

-Robert Hesketh


Acid rain acid deposition

Acid rain / Acid deposition

Cause and Effect Chain

Materials

Energy

Products

Process of Concern

human/ecological

damage from H+

and heavy metals

SO2 and NOx

emission to air

Acidification rxns.

& acid deposition

SO2

1997

Miscellaneous

1 - Chemical & Allied Processing

2 - Petroleum & Related Industries

3 - Metals Processing

4 - Other Industrial Processes

5 - Solvent Utilization

6 - Storage & Transportation

7 - Waste Disposal & Recycling

Transportation

Industrial Processes

Fuel Combustion

National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1997, U.S. EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, http://www.epa.gov/oar/aqtrnd97/chapter2.pdf

-Robert Hesketh


Human health toxicity

Human Health Toxicity

Materials

Energy

Products

Process of Concern

Transport, fate,

exposure pathways

& routes

Human health

damage; carcino-

genic & non...

Toxic releases to

air, water, and soil

EPCRA

Toxic

Waste

RCRA

Hazardous

Waste

Allen and Rosselot, 1997

-Robert Hesketh


Eco effectiveness and design

Eco-Effectiveness and Design

  • Get Free of Known Culprits

    • Avoid chemicals that are known problems

      • E.g., cadmium, lead, mercury

  • Follow Informed Personal Preferences

    • When dealing with gray areas, data uncertainty,…

  • Create Lists

    • X list (Known Culprits): Avoid

    • Gray List: Problematic, but may be best, or only, available

    • Positive list: Preferred

  • Reinvent

Good

Better

Best

Cradle to Cradle, by McDonough & Braungart, 2002


Work with performance equation to optimize your score

How?

  • How can we reinvent? How can we determine which designs are more Eco-effective?

  • Life-Cycle Assessment can help

    • Evaluating environmental impacts over a product’s entire life cycle


Product life cycle

Product Life Cycle

Materials

Materials

Materials

Materials

Life-

Cycle

Stages

Energy

Energy

Energy

Energy

Raw

Materials

Extraction

Material

Processing

Product

Manufacturing

Use, Reuse,

Disposal

Impacts

Impacts

Impacts

Impacts

Life-

Cycle

Impacts

other toxic

releases

resource

depletion

Human health

and ecosystem damage

global

warming

ozone

depletion

smog

formation

acidifi-

cation

- Adopted from Robert Hesketh


Product life cycle1

Product Life Cycle

Materials

Materials

Materials

Materials

Life-

Cycle

Stages

Energy

Energy

Energy

Energy

Raw

Materials

Extraction

Material

Processing

Product

Manufacturing

Use, Reuse,

Disposal

Impacts

Impacts

Impacts

Impacts

Life-

Cycle

Impacts

other toxic

releases

resource

depletion

Human health

and ecosystem damage

global

warming

ozone

depletion

smog

formation

acidifi-

cation

- Adopted from Robert Hesketh


Product life cycle2

Product Life Cycle

Materials

Materials

Materials

Materials

Life-

Cycle

Stages

Energy

Energy

Energy

Energy

Raw

Materials

Extraction

Material

Processing

Product

Manufacturing

Use, Reuse,

Disposal

Impacts

Impacts

Impacts

Impacts

Life-

Cycle

Impacts

other toxic

releases

resource

depletion

Human health

and ecosystem damage

global

warming

ozone

depletion

smog

formation

acidifi-

cation

- Adopted from Robert Hesketh


Product life cycle aluminum and plastic members

Product Life Cycle: Aluminum and Plastic Members

  • Raw Material Extraction

    • Extract bauxite and petroleum

  • Material Processing

    • Make aluminum from bauxite and resin beads from petroleum

  • Product Manufacture

    • Make bar stock out of aluminum and plastic

    • Make structural members from bar stock

    • Assemble

  • Disposal

    • Both Aluminum and Plastic are recyclable

    • Plastic can be burned for energy recovery

    • Both can be landfilled

IMPACTS: Green House Gasses, Ozone Depletion, Energy Use, Natural Resource Depletion, Landfill Space, Energy Recovery…


What is lca

What is LCA?

  • A life cycle assessment is an environmental analysis of a product that includes:

    • Goal

    • Scope

    • Inventory

    • Impact assessment

  • Defines and quantifies service provided by product, quantifies environmental exchanges, and ascribes potential impacts

  • Standards - ISO 14040


The lca process

The LCA Process

Impact Assessment

Goal

Scope

Inventory

Assess product

Improve product

Compare products

Design new product

Create product specifications

Functional Unit

Reference product(s)

Assessment parameters

Important Processes

Time Horizon

Allocation

Environmental Exchanges

Inputs (Energy & Materials)

Outputs (Air, Water & Waste)

Work Environment

Impact Potentials

Resource Consumption (Energy & Materials)

Environmental Impacts (Global Warming, Acidification, Ozone, etc.)

Impact on Work Environment


The lca process1

The LCA Process

Impact Assessment

Goal

Scope

Inventory

Assess product

Improve product

Compare products

Design new product

Create product specifications

Functional Unit

Reference product(s)

Assessment parameters

Important Processes

Time Horizon

Allocation

Environmental Exchanges

Inputs (Energy & Materials)

Outputs (Air, Water & Waste)

Work Environment

Impact Potentials

Resource Consumption (Energy & Materials)

Environmental Impacts (Global Warming, Acidification, Ozone, etc.)

Impact on Work Environment


Scope

Scope

  • Functional Unit

    • What provides the service?

      • Egg tray

        • Transports 12 eggs from grocery store to home without breaking…

      • Crane arm

        • Fits on existing base, lifts at least 400 lbs…

  • Reference product(s)

    • Existing products that delivery same or almost same service

      • Egg trays already in use

      • Are there existing cranes that deliver ~ same service?


Scope cont

Scope (cont.)

  • Assessment parameters

    • Environmental Impacts

    • Resource Consumption

    • Work Environment…

  • Important Processes

  • Time Horizon

    • While product is manufactured?

    • While product is in use?

    • Longterm environmental effects?

      • Could be hundreds of years or more

  • Allocation

    • It may be difficult to allocate environmental impacts

  • May be multiple products from single processes

  • Inputs may be byproducts of other processes

  • Outputs may become inputs for other processes


The lca process2

The LCA Process

Impact Assessment

Goal

Scope

Inventory

Assess product

Improve product

Compare products

Design new product

Create product specifications

Functional Unit

Reference product(s)

Assessment parameters

Important Processes

Time Horizon

Allocation

Environmental Exchanges

Inputs (Energy & Materials)

Outputs (Air, Water & Waste)

Work Environment

Impact Potentials

Resource Consumption (Energy & Materials)

Environmental Impacts (Global Warming, Acidification, Ozone, etc.)

Impact on Work Environment


Inventory

Inventory

  • Description of all key processes

  • Inventory of each process exchange with environment

  • Data collection for each process to make best estimates.

  • Calculate quantities

    • E.g., kg of product made x lb CO2 produced /kg


Inventory examples

Inventory Examples

  • Gasses that lead to global warming

  • Gasses that lead to ozone depletion

  • Gasses that lead to smog formation

  • Toxic chemicals

  • Heat

  • Energy

  • Degradation of land/habitat


The lca process3

The LCA Process

Impact Assessment

Goal

Scope

Inventory

Assess product

Improve product

Compare products

Design new product

Create product specifications

Functional Unit

Reference product(s)

Assessment parameters

Important Processes

Time Horizon

Allocation

Environmental Exchanges

Inputs (Energy & Materials)

Outputs (Air, Water & Waste)

Work Environment

Impact Potentials

Resource Consumption (Energy & Materials)

Environmental Impacts (Global Warming, Acidification, Ozone, etc.)

Impact on Work Environment


Impact assessment

Impact Assessment

  • For the LCA to support decisions, the inventory must be interpreted. Based upon available background knowledge the exchanges are converted to potential impacts on the environment, resource consumption and workers

  • Most difficult step, can be controversial

  • Can be achieved in different ways


Impact assessment methods

Impact Assessment Methods

  • Add up like emissions (e.g., CO2, …), resource depletions, etc., and discuss

  • Estimate impacts from emissions (e.g., Global warming,…), effects of resource depletions, etc., and discuss

  • Weight various impacts and combine to end up with fewer (as few as one) numbers to compare


Hoist inator lca goal

Hoist-inator – LCA Goal

  • Service is lift at least 400 lbs at least 24”…

  • Functional Unit is Crane arm

  • LCA used to help select between 3 alternative designs !!!!

  • LCA used to help select best crane in class


Hoist inator scope

Hoist-inator - Scope

  • Aluminum and Plastic members of Crane arm

  • Production and disposal only

  • No consideration of impacts during use

  • Complete reliance on ECO-indicator points calculated by ECO-it Program


Hoist inator inventory

Hoist-inator - Inventory

  • Complete reliance on ECO-it

    • Emissions to air, water, soil

    • 100’s of different chemicals

    • Many different materials, processes…


Hoist inator impact assessment

Hoist-inator - Impact Assessment

  • LCA impact assessment is solely based on ECO-indicator points

    • Higher score is bad

  • Overall performance is mix of weight, height, time, cost, and LCA

    • LCA “competes” against other considerations


Eco it

ECO-it

(Adopted from Eco-Indicator 99 Manual for Designers)

  • Developed in Netherlands

    • Based on European needs and data

  • Three “Eco”s

    • Human Health

      • Number/duration of disease, life-years lost

      • Causes: Climate change, ozone layer depletion, carcinogenic effects, respiratory effects, ionizing radiation

    • Ecosystem Quality

      • Species diversity

      • Causes: ecotoxicity, acidification, eutrophication, land-use

    • Resources

      • Surplus energy needed in future to extract lower quality mineral / fossil resources

      • Depletion of agricultural / bulk resources considered under land-use


Eco indicators

Eco-indicators

  • All environmental impacts converted to Eco-indicator points using weighting method

  • Point calculated for

    • Material Production (per kg)

    • Production Processes (per unit appropriate to process)

    • Transportation (metric ton-km)

    • Energy Generation (electricity and heat)

    • Disposal (per kg)

      • Negative Eco-points for recycling and reuse

        • Negative is good!


Eco indicator methodology

ECO-indicator Methodology

  • Inventory emissions, resource extractions, land uses related to life cycle of product

    • Data gathered by ESU-ETH in Zurich

  • Calculate damage to human health, ecosystem quality, and resources

    • Mathematic models use inventory data to predict years of life lost, years of disability, loss of species, and surplus energy needed for future extraction of (inferior) resources

  • Weight the three damage categories to come up with one number

    • Panel of 365 experts helped to develop weights


Eco it steps

ECO-it Steps

  • Establish Purpose

  • Define Life Cycle

  • Quantify Materials and Processes

  • Enter Data into ECO-it

  • Interpret Results


Establish purpose

Establish Purpose

  • Describe product or component to be analyzed

  • Decide what you intend to do

    • Analyze one specific product or compare two or more?

  • Define level of accuracy needed

    • Do you need to analyze everything or just core parts and/or processes?


Establish purpose crane

Establish Purpose - Crane

  • Define product or product component

    • Crane with 10 year life (used 10 hrs/week) that can lift >400 lb to height of > 24 in in 4 seconds

    • LCA is of aluminum and plastic members

  • Analysis of product or comparison with other product?

    • Comparison of alternative designs to optimize final design of single product

  • Level of Accuracy?

    • Whatever ECO-it will give us


Define life cycle

Define Life Cycle

  • Schematic overview of product life cycle, including production, use, and waste processing


Define life cycle crane

Define Life Cycle - Crane

Aluminum

Plastic

Pressing

Milling, Turning, Drilling

Pressure Forming

Milling, Turning, Drilling

Transport

Use

Electricity

Recycle / Landfill

Aluminum

Incinerate / Landfill

Plastic


Quantify materials and processes

Quantify Materials and Processes

  • Determine Functional Unit

  • Quantify relevant processes

  • Make assumptions for missing data


Quantify crane

Quantify - Crane

  • Parts

    • How many and how much material in each?

    • Lump all aluminum and all plastic used into one part each

  • Processes

    • How much is pressed or pressure formed?

    • How much is transported how far?

  • Energy (Except we’ve decided to exclude this)

    • What kind and how much?

  • Disposal

    • How much is landfilled, incinerated, or recycled?


Enter data and eco it calculates

Enter Data and ECO-it calculates

  • Fill in Form properly

    • Select parts and processes in ECO-it production, use, and disposal windows

    • Fill in amounts

  • ECO-it calculates damage to Human Health, Ecosystem Quality, and Resources and calculates single ECO-indicator point value by weighting method


Eco it life cycle window

ECO-it: Life Cycle Window


Eco it production window

ECO-it: Production Window


Eco it use window

ECO-it: Use Window

JUST AN EXAMPLE: WE ARE NOT

INCLUDING USE IN OUR LCA


Eco it use window1

ECO-it: Use Window

Your Use window will look like this.


Enter data into eco it

Enter Data into ECO-it


Interpret results

Interpret Results

  • Which phase of life cycle causes most damage, production, use, or disposal?

  • Which parts or processes cause most damage?

  • What effect might any assumption or uncertainties have?

  • Make conclusions?

  • Ask the question, has the purpose of the LCA been met?


Interpret results lifecycle

Interpret Results - Lifecycle


Interpret results production

Interpret Results - Production


Interpret results disposal

Interpret Results - Disposal


How should you use lca

How should you use LCA?

  • Select between your alternative designs. This means estimating the amount of aluminum used by each design.

  • Once you’ve selected a design, optimize your design

    • Minimize all materials

    • Minimize aluminum relative to plastic

    • Select best disposal methods

  • Making your final report the best possible

    • Use LCA results (numbers or graphs) when explaining selection and optimization processes.


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