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Work with Performance Equation to Optimize your Score!. Weight Structural analysis, failure analysis, load impact when lift starts (Use Excel) Height Structure geometry, pulley placement (Use Solid Works, ACAD, Excel) Time Ask Dr. Head! Cost

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work with performance equation to optimize your score
Work with Performance Equation to Optimize your Score!
  • Weight
    • Structural analysis, failure analysis, load impact when lift starts (Use Excel)
  • Height
    • Structure geometry, pulley placement (Use Solid Works, ACAD, Excel)
  • Time
    • Ask Dr. Head!
  • Cost
    • Mass and $/unit mass aluminum and plastic, energy cost (Use Excel)
  • LCA
    • Mass aluminum and plastic, disposal methods (ECO-it)
life cycle assessment

Life Cycle Assessment

Sophomore Clinic

Fall 2003

(With thanks to Dr. Jansson and Hesketh)

overview
Overview
  • Why care about the environment?
  • Environmental Problems
  • Basic Environmental Design
  • Life Cycle Assessment
    • Hoistinator
    • Eco-IT
intergenerational responsibility
Intergenerational Responsibility

The Earth belongs…to the living…No man can by natural right oblige the lands he occupied, or the persons who succeeded him in that occupation, to the payment of debts contracted by him. For if he could, he might, during his own life, eat up the usufruct [products] of the lands for several generations to come, and then the lands would belong to the dead and not the living.

-Thomas Jefferson, in a letter to James Madison, 1789

engineers and environmental regulations
Engineers and Environmental Regulations

Major Laws/Amendments

Environmental Regulations

Bishop, “Pollution Prevention: Fundamentals and Practice”, McGraw-Hill, 2000

-Robert Hesketh

money
Money
  • Cost of clean up
    • 2,000 to 4,500 contaminated sites
    • $100 to $165 Billion
    • ~$2 Billion / year
  • Cost avoidance
    • Lower material / energy costs
    • Lower waste disposal costs
global warming and related impacts
Global Warming and Related Impacts

Materials

Energy

Cause and Effect Chain

Products

Process of Concern

greenhouse

gas emissions

CO2, CH4, N2O

climate change;

sea level change

human mortality

or life adjustments

Contribution to global

Warming; Phipps, NPPC,

http://www.snre.umich.edu/nppc/

Climate Change 1995, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, WMO and UNEP, Cambridge University Press, 1996.

-Robert Hesketh

stratospheric ozone and related impacts
Stratospheric Ozone and Related Impacts

Cause and Effect Chain

Materials

Energy

Products

Process of Concern

ozone depleting

substances

CFCs, HCFCs

human mortality

or life adjustments

ecosystem damage

ozone layer loss

increase in uv

Toxics Release Inventory Data

Climate Change 1995, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, WMO and UNEP, Cambridge University Press, 1996.

-Robert Hesketh

smog formation and related impacts
Smog formation and related impacts

Cause and Effect Chain

Materials

Energy

Products

Process of Concern

human/ecological

damage from O3

and other oxidants

NOx and volatile

organic substances

photochemical

oxidation reactions

1 - Chemical & Allied Processing

2 - Petroleum & Related Industries

NOx

VOCs

NOx

1997

Miscellaneous

3 - Metals Processing, 4 - Other Industrial Processes

5 - Solvent Utilization, 6 - Storage & Transportation

7 - Waste Disposal & Recycling

Transportation

Industrial Processes

VOCs

1997

Fuel Combustion

National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1997, U.S. EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, http://www.epa.gov/oar/aqtrnd97/chapter2.pdf

-Robert Hesketh

acid rain acid deposition
Acid rain / Acid deposition

Cause and Effect Chain

Materials

Energy

Products

Process of Concern

human/ecological

damage from H+

and heavy metals

SO2 and NOx

emission to air

Acidification rxns.

& acid deposition

SO2

1997

Miscellaneous

1 - Chemical & Allied Processing

2 - Petroleum & Related Industries

3 - Metals Processing

4 - Other Industrial Processes

5 - Solvent Utilization

6 - Storage & Transportation

7 - Waste Disposal & Recycling

Transportation

Industrial Processes

Fuel Combustion

National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1997, U.S. EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, http://www.epa.gov/oar/aqtrnd97/chapter2.pdf

-Robert Hesketh

human health toxicity
Human Health Toxicity

Materials

Energy

Products

Process of Concern

Transport, fate,

exposure pathways

& routes

Human health

damage; carcino-

genic & non...

Toxic releases to

air, water, and soil

EPCRA

Toxic

Waste

RCRA

Hazardous

Waste

Allen and Rosselot, 1997

-Robert Hesketh

eco effectiveness and design
Eco-Effectiveness and Design
  • Get Free of Known Culprits
    • Avoid chemicals that are known problems
      • E.g., cadmium, lead, mercury
  • Follow Informed Personal Preferences
    • When dealing with gray areas, data uncertainty,…
  • Create Lists
    • X list (Known Culprits): Avoid
    • Gray List: Problematic, but may be best, or only, available
    • Positive list: Preferred
  • Reinvent

Good

Better

Best

Cradle to Cradle, by McDonough & Braungart, 2002

slide14
How?
  • How can we reinvent? How can we determine which designs are more Eco-effective?
  • Life-Cycle Assessment can help
    • Evaluating environmental impacts over a product’s entire life cycle
product life cycle
Product Life Cycle

Materials

Materials

Materials

Materials

Life-

Cycle

Stages

Energy

Energy

Energy

Energy

Raw

Materials

Extraction

Material

Processing

Product

Manufacturing

Use, Reuse,

Disposal

Impacts

Impacts

Impacts

Impacts

Life-

Cycle

Impacts

other toxic

releases

resource

depletion

Human health

and ecosystem damage

global

warming

ozone

depletion

smog

formation

acidifi-

cation

- Adopted from Robert Hesketh

product life cycle1
Product Life Cycle

Materials

Materials

Materials

Materials

Life-

Cycle

Stages

Energy

Energy

Energy

Energy

Raw

Materials

Extraction

Material

Processing

Product

Manufacturing

Use, Reuse,

Disposal

Impacts

Impacts

Impacts

Impacts

Life-

Cycle

Impacts

other toxic

releases

resource

depletion

Human health

and ecosystem damage

global

warming

ozone

depletion

smog

formation

acidifi-

cation

- Adopted from Robert Hesketh

product life cycle2
Product Life Cycle

Materials

Materials

Materials

Materials

Life-

Cycle

Stages

Energy

Energy

Energy

Energy

Raw

Materials

Extraction

Material

Processing

Product

Manufacturing

Use, Reuse,

Disposal

Impacts

Impacts

Impacts

Impacts

Life-

Cycle

Impacts

other toxic

releases

resource

depletion

Human health

and ecosystem damage

global

warming

ozone

depletion

smog

formation

acidifi-

cation

- Adopted from Robert Hesketh

product life cycle aluminum and plastic members
Product Life Cycle: Aluminum and Plastic Members
  • Raw Material Extraction
    • Extract bauxite and petroleum
  • Material Processing
    • Make aluminum from bauxite and resin beads from petroleum
  • Product Manufacture
    • Make bar stock out of aluminum and plastic
    • Make structural members from bar stock
    • Assemble
  • Disposal
    • Both Aluminum and Plastic are recyclable
    • Plastic can be burned for energy recovery
    • Both can be landfilled

IMPACTS: Green House Gasses, Ozone Depletion, Energy Use, Natural Resource Depletion, Landfill Space, Energy Recovery…

what is lca
What is LCA?
  • A life cycle assessment is an environmental analysis of a product that includes:
    • Goal
    • Scope
    • Inventory
    • Impact assessment
  • Defines and quantifies service provided by product, quantifies environmental exchanges, and ascribes potential impacts
  • Standards - ISO 14040
the lca process
The LCA Process

Impact Assessment

Goal

Scope

Inventory

Assess product

Improve product

Compare products

Design new product

Create product specifications

Functional Unit

Reference product(s)

Assessment parameters

Important Processes

Time Horizon

Allocation

Environmental Exchanges

Inputs (Energy & Materials)

Outputs (Air, Water & Waste)

Work Environment

Impact Potentials

Resource Consumption (Energy & Materials)

Environmental Impacts (Global Warming, Acidification, Ozone, etc.)

Impact on Work Environment

the lca process1
The LCA Process

Impact Assessment

Goal

Scope

Inventory

Assess product

Improve product

Compare products

Design new product

Create product specifications

Functional Unit

Reference product(s)

Assessment parameters

Important Processes

Time Horizon

Allocation

Environmental Exchanges

Inputs (Energy & Materials)

Outputs (Air, Water & Waste)

Work Environment

Impact Potentials

Resource Consumption (Energy & Materials)

Environmental Impacts (Global Warming, Acidification, Ozone, etc.)

Impact on Work Environment

scope
Scope
  • Functional Unit
    • What provides the service?
      • Egg tray
        • Transports 12 eggs from grocery store to home without breaking…
      • Crane arm
        • Fits on existing base, lifts at least 400 lbs…
  • Reference product(s)
    • Existing products that delivery same or almost same service
      • Egg trays already in use
      • Are there existing cranes that deliver ~ same service?
scope cont
Scope (cont.)
  • Assessment parameters
    • Environmental Impacts
    • Resource Consumption
    • Work Environment…
  • Important Processes
  • Time Horizon
    • While product is manufactured?
    • While product is in use?
    • Longterm environmental effects?
      • Could be hundreds of years or more
  • Allocation
    • It may be difficult to allocate environmental impacts
  • May be multiple products from single processes
  • Inputs may be byproducts of other processes
  • Outputs may become inputs for other processes
the lca process2
The LCA Process

Impact Assessment

Goal

Scope

Inventory

Assess product

Improve product

Compare products

Design new product

Create product specifications

Functional Unit

Reference product(s)

Assessment parameters

Important Processes

Time Horizon

Allocation

Environmental Exchanges

Inputs (Energy & Materials)

Outputs (Air, Water & Waste)

Work Environment

Impact Potentials

Resource Consumption (Energy & Materials)

Environmental Impacts (Global Warming, Acidification, Ozone, etc.)

Impact on Work Environment

inventory
Inventory
  • Description of all key processes
  • Inventory of each process exchange with environment
  • Data collection for each process to make best estimates.
  • Calculate quantities
    • E.g., kg of product made x lb CO2 produced /kg
inventory examples
Inventory Examples
  • Gasses that lead to global warming
  • Gasses that lead to ozone depletion
  • Gasses that lead to smog formation
  • Toxic chemicals
  • Heat
  • Energy
  • Degradation of land/habitat
the lca process3
The LCA Process

Impact Assessment

Goal

Scope

Inventory

Assess product

Improve product

Compare products

Design new product

Create product specifications

Functional Unit

Reference product(s)

Assessment parameters

Important Processes

Time Horizon

Allocation

Environmental Exchanges

Inputs (Energy & Materials)

Outputs (Air, Water & Waste)

Work Environment

Impact Potentials

Resource Consumption (Energy & Materials)

Environmental Impacts (Global Warming, Acidification, Ozone, etc.)

Impact on Work Environment

impact assessment
Impact Assessment
  • For the LCA to support decisions, the inventory must be interpreted. Based upon available background knowledge the exchanges are converted to potential impacts on the environment, resource consumption and workers
  • Most difficult step, can be controversial
  • Can be achieved in different ways
impact assessment methods
Impact Assessment Methods
  • Add up like emissions (e.g., CO2, …), resource depletions, etc., and discuss
  • Estimate impacts from emissions (e.g., Global warming,…), effects of resource depletions, etc., and discuss
  • Weight various impacts and combine to end up with fewer (as few as one) numbers to compare
hoist inator lca goal
Hoist-inator – LCA Goal
  • Service is lift at least 400 lbs at least 24”…
  • Functional Unit is Crane arm
  • LCA used to help select between 3 alternative designs !!!!
  • LCA used to help select best crane in class
hoist inator scope
Hoist-inator - Scope
  • Aluminum and Plastic members of Crane arm
  • Production and disposal only
  • No consideration of impacts during use
  • Complete reliance on ECO-indicator points calculated by ECO-it Program
hoist inator inventory
Hoist-inator - Inventory
  • Complete reliance on ECO-it
    • Emissions to air, water, soil
    • 100’s of different chemicals
    • Many different materials, processes…
hoist inator impact assessment
Hoist-inator - Impact Assessment
  • LCA impact assessment is solely based on ECO-indicator points
    • Higher score is bad
  • Overall performance is mix of weight, height, time, cost, and LCA
    • LCA “competes” against other considerations
eco it
ECO-it

(Adopted from Eco-Indicator 99 Manual for Designers)

  • Developed in Netherlands
    • Based on European needs and data
  • Three “Eco”s
    • Human Health
      • Number/duration of disease, life-years lost
      • Causes: Climate change, ozone layer depletion, carcinogenic effects, respiratory effects, ionizing radiation
    • Ecosystem Quality
      • Species diversity
      • Causes: ecotoxicity, acidification, eutrophication, land-use
    • Resources
      • Surplus energy needed in future to extract lower quality mineral / fossil resources
      • Depletion of agricultural / bulk resources considered under land-use
eco indicators
Eco-indicators
  • All environmental impacts converted to Eco-indicator points using weighting method
  • Point calculated for
    • Material Production (per kg)
    • Production Processes (per unit appropriate to process)
    • Transportation (metric ton-km)
    • Energy Generation (electricity and heat)
    • Disposal (per kg)
      • Negative Eco-points for recycling and reuse
        • Negative is good!
eco indicator methodology
ECO-indicator Methodology
  • Inventory emissions, resource extractions, land uses related to life cycle of product
    • Data gathered by ESU-ETH in Zurich
  • Calculate damage to human health, ecosystem quality, and resources
    • Mathematic models use inventory data to predict years of life lost, years of disability, loss of species, and surplus energy needed for future extraction of (inferior) resources
  • Weight the three damage categories to come up with one number
    • Panel of 365 experts helped to develop weights
eco it steps
ECO-it Steps
  • Establish Purpose
  • Define Life Cycle
  • Quantify Materials and Processes
  • Enter Data into ECO-it
  • Interpret Results
establish purpose
Establish Purpose
  • Describe product or component to be analyzed
  • Decide what you intend to do
    • Analyze one specific product or compare two or more?
  • Define level of accuracy needed
    • Do you need to analyze everything or just core parts and/or processes?
establish purpose crane
Establish Purpose - Crane
  • Define product or product component
    • Crane with 10 year life (used 10 hrs/week) that can lift >400 lb to height of > 24 in in 4 seconds
    • LCA is of aluminum and plastic members
  • Analysis of product or comparison with other product?
    • Comparison of alternative designs to optimize final design of single product
  • Level of Accuracy?
    • Whatever ECO-it will give us
define life cycle
Define Life Cycle
  • Schematic overview of product life cycle, including production, use, and waste processing
define life cycle crane
Define Life Cycle - Crane

Aluminum

Plastic

Pressing

Milling, Turning, Drilling

Pressure Forming

Milling, Turning, Drilling

Transport

Use

Electricity

Recycle / Landfill

Aluminum

Incinerate / Landfill

Plastic

quantify materials and processes
Quantify Materials and Processes
  • Determine Functional Unit
  • Quantify relevant processes
  • Make assumptions for missing data
quantify crane
Quantify - Crane
  • Parts
    • How many and how much material in each?
    • Lump all aluminum and all plastic used into one part each
  • Processes
    • How much is pressed or pressure formed?
    • How much is transported how far?
  • Energy (Except we’ve decided to exclude this)
    • What kind and how much?
  • Disposal
    • How much is landfilled, incinerated, or recycled?
enter data and eco it calculates
Enter Data and ECO-it calculates
  • Fill in Form properly
    • Select parts and processes in ECO-it production, use, and disposal windows
    • Fill in amounts
  • ECO-it calculates damage to Human Health, Ecosystem Quality, and Resources and calculates single ECO-indicator point value by weighting method
eco it use window
ECO-it: Use Window

JUST AN EXAMPLE: WE ARE NOT

INCLUDING USE IN OUR LCA

eco it use window1
ECO-it: Use Window

Your Use window will look like this.

interpret results
Interpret Results
  • Which phase of life cycle causes most damage, production, use, or disposal?
  • Which parts or processes cause most damage?
  • What effect might any assumption or uncertainties have?
  • Make conclusions?
  • Ask the question, has the purpose of the LCA been met?
how should you use lca
How should you use LCA?
  • Select between your alternative designs. This means estimating the amount of aluminum used by each design.
  • Once you’ve selected a design, optimize your design
    • Minimize all materials
    • Minimize aluminum relative to plastic
    • Select best disposal methods
  • Making your final report the best possible
    • Use LCA results (numbers or graphs) when explaining selection and optimization processes.
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