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# Unit 2 – Rhythm, Meter & Metric Organization - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

V. Unit 2 – Rhythm, Meter & Metric Organization. Mr. Jackson AP Music Theory. V. Notating Rhythm. V. Notating Rhythm. V. Notating Rhythm. Introduction. Music is sound and silence in time. Western Music Notation shows how long one note lasts in relation to others.

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### Unit 2 – Rhythm, Meter & Metric Organization

Mr. Jackson

AP Music Theory

Notating Rhythm

Notating Rhythm

Notating Rhythm

Introduction

• Music is sound and silence in time.

• Western Music Notation shows how long one note lasts in relation to others.

• Time Signaturesspecify how many beats are in each measure and which note value constitutes one beat.

• The TOP number tells you how many beats are in a measure

• The BOTTOMnumbertells you which note gets one beat

Notating Rhythm

The Dot and the Tie

• The Dot extends the value of a SINGLE note by one-half of itsoriginal value.

• The Tie combines the durational values of two or more notes of the same pitch using a curved line.

Metric Organization

Definitions

• Duration – The Length of time sound (or silence) occurs

• Beat – A regular, recurring pulsation that divides music into units of time

• Meter– The organization of beats into regular groups of TWO, THREE, and FOUR (usually with strong and weak beats) and how the beat is subdivided

• Subdivision– The division of the beat into two or three equal parts

• Rhythm– Series of durations, often varying, of sound and silence

• Tempo– The speed of the beat

Metric Organization

Meter

• Duple – Two beats per measure [ STRONG weak] TOP NUMBER of TIME SIGNATURE = 2 or 6

• Triple– Three beats per measure [ STRONG weak weak] TOP NUMBER of TIME SIGNATURE = 3 or 9

• Quadruple– Four beats per measure [ STRONG weak LESS STRONG weak] TOP NUMBER of TIME SIGNATURE = 4 or 12

• Simple Meter– refers to the beat being divided equally into TWO parts TOP NUMBER of TIME SIGNATURE = 2, 3, 4

• Compound Meter– refers to the beat being divided equally into THREE parts TOP NUMBER of TIME SIGNATURE = 6, 8, or 12

Metric Organization

Simple Meter

Metric Organization

Compound Meter

Metric Organization

Compound Meter

Compound or not Compound?That is the question…

To check:Divide the TOP NUMBER of the time signature by 3. If your answer is a whole number greater than 1 – you are in a Compound Meter. Pretty cool, huh?

Metric Organization

Compound Meter

• For Compound Meter– BE CAREFUL when defining the BEAT!

• For 6/8 – We usually consider each measure having 2 Beats – NOT 6 as many people assume based on defining Time Signatures.

Meter

Syncopation

• Syncopation– Occurs when the emphasis or stress is in –between the beats or on a normally weak beat.

Meter

Syncopation (Cont..)

• Syncopation can also involve TIES!

Meter

Triplets & Duplets

• Triplet– Divides a regular duration into three* In “Simple Time” using Triplets -- You are kind of “borrowing” from a Compound Feel!

• Duplet– Divides a regular duration into three* In “Compound Time” using Duples – You are kind of “borrowing” from a Simple Feel!

Meter

Downbeats & Upbeats

• Downbeat– The first beat of the measure.

• Anacrusis– Notes that precede the first beat.

Metric Organization

Asymmetrical Meters

• Asymmetrical – means NOT symmetrical or NOT equal. Asymmetrical Meters have beat units of UNEQUAL LENGTH.

• ** The most common asymmetrical meters have 5 or 7 as the top number!**

• In 5/8 – you could break it down a few different ways (3+2 or 2+3)

Meter

Hemiola

• Hemiola– (sometimes called CROSS RHYTHM) – is a metric device where the rhythmic relation of three notes occurs in the time of two. It consists of super-imposing two notes in the time of three (duplet), or three in the time of two (triplet).

Meter

Hemiola

Although we have 3 beats per measure – Schubert constantly uses TIES to create 2 beats all over the place! What’s up with that?! 

Etc..