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Sexual Reproduction And Meiosis

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Sexual Reproduction And Meiosis. - sexual reproduction- 2 _____ cells, _____ and _________ come together sperm- ______ sex cell, formed in males reproductive organs eggs- _________ sex cell, formed in females reproductive organs fertilization- __________ of egg and sperm

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Presentation Transcript
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- sexual reproduction- 2 _____ cells, _____ and _________ come together

  • sperm- ______ sex cell, formed in males reproductive organs
  • eggs- _________ sex cell, formed in females reproductive organs
  • fertilization- __________ of egg and sperm
  • zygote- the _______ that forms from egg and sperm
  • once ______________ has occurred a cell (___________) is formed with unique _________

sex

1. Important Terms and facts:

egg

sperm

male

female

joining

cell

fertilization

zygote

identity

slide3

2. 2 types of cells:

  • _______ cells
  • _______ cells

body

sex

skin

organs

  • bone, _________, tissues, __________
  • contain ___ chromosomes (__ pairs)
  • known as ___________ cells or cells with __________

3. Body Cells

46

23

diploid

pairs

sperm

4. Sex Cells

  • egg and __________
  • ___ chromosomes- ______ paired
  • known as _________ cells or “________ form” cells

not

23

haploid

single

slide4

duplicate

  • process used to _______________ haploid ______cells
  • does not occur until ____________

5. Meiosis

sex

puberty

twice

- we would have _________ the amount of chromosomes

6. What would happen in sexual reproduction if we made diploid cells?

slide5

7. Formation of a zygote

  • 2 _________ cells combine to make a __________ cell called a _________
  • egg + sperm = zygote
  • haploid 23 + haploid 23 = diploid 46
  • - this is why you have ___________ from both parents

haploid

diploid

zygote

features

slide6

meiosis

8. Meiosis vs. Mitosis

  • __________ is for the duplication of haploid (_____) cells
  • _________ is for the duplication of diploid (______) cells

sex

mitosis

body

slide7

twice

9. Steps of Meiosis

  • the __________ divides _______, this is called Meiosis I and Meiosis II
  • 1. Interphase
  • 2. __________ I
  • 3. Metaphase I
  • 4. __________ I
  • 5. Telophase I
  • 6. __________ II
  • 7. Metaphase II
  • 8. __________ II
  • 9. Telophase II

nucleus

Prophase

Anaphase

Prophase

Anaphase

slide8

10. Interphase

  • chromatids are duplicated and called _____________
  • 23 x 2 = ____ chromosomes

chromosomes

46

slide9

chromatids

11. Prophase

I

  • duplicated ______________ join to form chromosomes
  • _______________occurs when chromosomes _______ and _____________ genetic information

Crossing over

coil

exchange

chromosomes

12. Metaphase

I

  • pairs of _______________ line up in the __________
  • _______________of each chromosome attaches to one ____________________

middle

centromere

spindle fiber

slide10

chromosomes

13. Anaphase

I

  • the pairs of ________________ move to _____________ ends of the cell
  • each chromosome still has ____ chromatids

opposite

2

14. Telophase

I

cytoplasm

  • _____________ divides
  • ___ new cells form

2

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Meiosis

15. Meiosis

II

  • both cells from _________ I undergo _____________ II
  • does not begin until ______________

Meiosis

puberty

16. Prophase

II

- _____________________ and ________ fibers reappear

chromosomes

spindle

slide12

centromere

17. Metaphase

II

  • each _______________ attaches to ____ spindle fibers
  • chromosomes line up in the ___________

2

middle

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18. Anaphase

II

chromatids

- centromere and _____________ separate and move to ______________ ends of the cell

opposite

19. Telophase

II

disappear

  • spindle fibers ______________
  • ____________________forms around chromosomes
  • cytoplasm ___________(cytokinesis)

nuclear membrane

divides

each cell produced in meiosis has _____chromosomes

23

slide14

chromosome disorders may occur such as ___________, Down syndrome, __________ syndrome, Edward’s syndrome, ______________ syndrome, and Turner’s syndrome

  • _________________- when a pair of chromosome doesn’t ______________- often fatal to fetus

1. What happens if a cell is made with too many or too few chromosomes?

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extra chromosome _______

  • specific ____________ features, _________ stature, __________ defects
  • often have ______________ diseases, a shorter _______________, and some degree of ___________ retardation
  • range from ____________ to ________

2. Down Syndrome

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extra chromosome _____

  • severe ______, ________ and _________________ effects
  • often have a cleft ____________
  • usually don’t live longer than a few _____________

3. Patau Syndrome

4. Edward’s Syndrome

  • extra chromosome ____
  • affects all ____________ in some way
  • usually don’t live longer than a few ______________
slide17

5. Klinefelter’s syndrome

  • extra _____ chromosome in sex determining chromosomes (______)
  • they are ________but have some _____________ characteristics

6. Turner’s syndrome

  • only have ____ chromosome- missing other ____
  • ________with only __ chromosomes
  • _________ in stature and do not ____________
slide18

7. Fragile X syndrome

  • caused by a ______________ on the ____ chromosome
  • occurs mostly in __________
  • causes slow ________, developmental ____________, mental ______________, and _____________ problems such as autism
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