COMMON NUTRITION PROBLEMS
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COMMON NUTRITION PROBLEMS IN INDIA. Dr. K.VIJAYARAGHAVAN DIRECTOR – RESEARCH, SHARE INDIA (MEDICITI INSTITUTION) & Sr. Dy. Director, NIN (Retd). < [email protected] >. MOTHER AND CHILD SURVIVAL. MMR 407/100,000 live births IMR* 58/1000 live births

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COMMON NUTRITION PROBLEMS IN INDIA

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Common nutrition problems in india

COMMON NUTRITION PROBLEMS

IN INDIA

Dr. K.VIJAYARAGHAVAN

DIRECTOR – RESEARCH,

SHARE INDIA (MEDICITI INSTITUTION)

&

Sr. Dy. Director, NIN (Retd)

<[email protected]>


Mother and child survival

MOTHER AND CHILD SURVIVAL

MMR 407/100,000live births

IMR* 58/1000 live births

Child Mortality 19.5/1000Children

Rate(1-4 years)

*Gujarat 53

Vijayaraghavan


Common nutrition problems in india

NUTRITION PROBLEMS IN INDIA

WHO IS AT RISK??

PREGNANT WOMEN

LACTATING WOMEN

INFANTS

PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

ADOLESCENT GIRLS

ELDERLY

SOCIALLY DEPRIVED

(SC & ST Communities)

.

Vijayaraghavan


Common nutrition problems in india

NUTRITION PROBLEMS IN INDIA

WHAT ARE THE COMMON PROBLEMS?

  • WOMEN

  • • POOR WT. GAIN

  • DURING PREGNANCY

  • CED

  • MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES

  • CHILDREN

  • LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

  • GROWTH FALTERING

  • PEM

  • MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES

  • FLUOROSIS, LATHYRISM

  • DIET RELATED CHRONIC DISEASES

  • OBESITY, CARDIOVASCULAR

  • DISEASES, DIABETES

Vijayaraghavan


Common nutrition problems in india

PREVALENCE OF LBW IN S.E ASIAN COUNTRIES

Vijayaraghavan


Common nutrition problems in india

FACTORS MODIFYING PREVALENCE OF LBW

  • % INSTITUTIONAL DELIVERIES

  • # ANCs (Minimum: >5)

  • QUALITY OF ANC

  • Includes:

  • No.of ANCs, TT, Weight, BP, Examination of Blood, Examination of Urine


Common nutrition problems in india

Source : Shanti Ghosh

Source: Shanti Ghosh et al, 1978


Common nutrition problems in india

Source: Leela Iyengar & Apte, S,V.,1970


Common nutrition problems in india

Source: Leela Raman & Rajalakshmi,1974


Nutritional disorders in children

NUTRITIONAL DISORDERS IN CHILDREN

  • PROTEIN ENERGY MALNUTRITION (PEM)

    . CLINICAL FORMS

    . SUBCLINICAL UNDERNUTRITION

  • MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES

Vijayaraghavan


Clincal forms of pem

CLINCAL FORMS of PEM

KWASHIORKOR

  • OEDEMA+

  • IRRITABILITY+

  • GROWTH FAILURE+

  • DISCOLOURED HAIR+

Vijayaraghavan


Clincal forms of pem1

CLINCAL FORMS of PEM

MARASMUS

EXTREME WASTING

“SKIN AND BONES”

MONKEY/OLD MAN FACIES

Vijayaraghavan


Sub clinical forms of pem

SUB-CLINICAL FORMS OF PEM

Vijayaraghavan


Undernutrition in india

UNDERNUTRITION IN INDIA

ADULTS (Females)

PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

Based on NCHS weight for age

Based on BMI

Vijayaraghavan


Common nutrition problems in india

VIJAY’00


Distribution weight for age iap gujarat

DISTRIBUTION WEIGHT FOR AGE – IAPGujarat

Gr. II

Gr. I

Gr. III

Gr. IV

Normal


Weight for age sd classification gujarat

WEIGHT FOR AGE– SD CLASSIFICATION - GUJARAT


Common nutrition problems in india

VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY


Common nutrition problems in india

KERATOMALACIA

BITOT SPOT

V

A

D

BILATERAL BLINDNESS

Vijayaraghavan


Who criteria for public health significance vad

WHO Criteria for Public Health Significance- VAD

Minimum Prevalence (%) in children <6 yrs

  • BITOT SPOTS0.5

  • NIGHT BLINDNESS1.0

  • CORNEAL LESIONS 0.01

  • CORNEAL SCARS0.05

  • Serum Retinol <10 g/l 5.0

Vijayaraghavan


Common nutrition problems in india

VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY (%) IN INDIA

* 24-71 MONTHS

Vijayaraghavan


Common nutrition problems in india

No VAD

VAD

VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY

Districts(%) with X1B >0.5%

Average prevalence (%)

2.1

Based on surveys in 126 Dts.

by NIN and NNMB

Vijayaraghavan


Common nutrition problems in india

NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY SIGNS IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

Vijayaraghavan


Common nutrition problems in india

Vijayaraghavan


Common nutrition problems in india

ANAEMIA


Common nutrition problems in india

Vijayaraghavan


Common nutrition problems in india

PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA -ADOLESCENT GIRLS


Anaemia in females

ANAEMIA IN FEMALES

  • PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA IS VERY HIGH IN BOTH THE GROUPS

  • NO CHANGE NOTICED OVER TIME IN THE PREVALENCE

Pregnant Women

Adolescent girls

Vijayaraghavan


Common nutrition problems in india

IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDERS


Common nutrition problems in india

IODINE DEFICIENCY DISORDERS

GOITRE+

239 OF 282 DTs. SURVEYED –

ENDEMIC

167 millions AT RISK ?


Prevalence of goitre in 6 12 yr children gujarat

PREVALENCE OF GOITRE IN 6-12 Yr CHILDREN - Gujarat


Common nutrition problems in india

DIETARY INTAKES


Common nutrition problems in india

HOUSEHOLD NUTRIENT INTAKES IN DIFFERENT AREAS

VIJAY’00


Common nutrition problems in india

HOUSEHOLD NUTRIENT INTAKES IN DIFFERENT AREAS


Nutrient intakes among indian women

NUTRIENT INTAKES AMONG INDIAN WOMEN

Source: NNMB, 2000


Common nutrition problems in india

NUTRIENT INTAKES IN PREGNANT WOMEN % RDI

Source: NNMB,2000


Common nutrition problems in india

NUTRIENT INTAKES (per day) IN CHILDREN

  • NNMB, 2000

Vijayaraghavan


Common nutrition problems in india

DETERMINANTS OF MALNUTRITION

MATERNAL MALNUTRITION

START WITH A HANDICAP(LBW)

FAULTY CHILDFEEDING PRACTICES

DIETARY INADEQUACY

FREQUENT INFECTIONS

LOW PURCHASING POWER

LARGE FAMILIES

HIGH FEMALE ILLITERACY

TABOOS AND SUPERSTITIONS


Common nutrition problems in india

Factors Affecting Nutritional Status

High illiteracyUnemployment/

Underemployment

Large families

Low purchasing power

Ignorance High dependence rate

False food beliefs Inadequate intakes

Low Procurement

of foods Poor PDSHigh cost

Low availability of foods

Low productionReduced workMalnutrition

of foodgrainsoutput

Poor environmentMorbidity Absorption of nutrients

Low Appetite

Poor utilization of services poor coverage of immunization

Improper health services

poor infrastructure

Lack of resources


Common nutrition problems in india

INTERVENTIONS IN OPERATION

  • DIRECT

  • CONVERGENCE OF SERVICES (RCH)

  • INTEGRATED CHILD DEVELOPMENT SERVICES

  • IRON AND FOLIC ACID DISTRIBUTION

  • MASSIVE DOSE VITAMIN A PROGRAMME

  • PRIMARY HEALTH CARE PROGRAMME

  • HEALTH AND NUTRITION EDUCATION

  • INDIRECT

  • POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES

  • ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

  • PROTECTED WATER SUPPLY

  • LITERACY PROGRAMME


Common nutrition problems in india

THANKS &

NAMASKAR


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