Chapter 2
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 14

Chapter 2 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 121 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 2. The Development of Evolutionary Theory. Evolution?. Brian Malow http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ohvh47vTp34&feature=related. Introduction to the Subject of Evolution. Evolution is the most fundamental of all biological processes, but one of the most misunderstood.

Download Presentation

Chapter 2

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter 2

Chapter 2

The Development of Evolutionary Theory


Evolution

Evolution?

  • Brian Malow http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ohvh47vTp34&feature=related


Introduction to the subject of evolution

Introduction to the Subject of Evolution

  • Evolution is the most fundamental of all biological processes, but one of the most misunderstood.

  • Humans evolved from a species that lived some 6-8 million years ago (mya), not monkeys or chimpanzees.


Chapter 2

  • Evolution takes time; hence, the appearance of a new species is rarely witnessed (microevolutionary changes occur, however: see Chapt. 1)

  • The subject of evolution is controversial, especially in the U.S. because of conflicting spiritual teachings


Evolution is a theory

Evolution Is a Theory

  • The theory has been tested and subjected to verification through accumulated evidence (and has not been disproved)

  • The theory of evolution has been supported by a mounting body of genetic evidence.

  • The theory has stood the test of time.

  • The theory continues to grow.


A brief history of evolutionary thought

A Brief History of Evolutionary Thought

  • Evolutionary principles were developed in western Europe, made possible by scientific thinking dating to the 16th century.

  • Western science, however, borrowed ideas from Arab, Indian, and Chinese cultures where notions of biological evolution had already developed.

  • It was the theory that was new.


Natural selection

Natural Selection

  • Natural selection in the theory of evolution refers to genetic change or changes in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success between individuals.

  • The most critical mechanism of evolutionary change, first explained by Charles Darwin

  • Same conclusions were independently reached by Alfred Russel Wallace.

  • A predominant feature of European worldview was, however, that all forms of nature never changed….


Fixity of species

Fixity of Species

  • The notion that species, once created, can never change.

  • An idea opposed to theories of biological evolution.

  • To challenge the idea was to challenge the perfection of God’s design.


The scientific revolution

The Scientific Revolution

  • Came with the discovery of the New World, introducing new ideas and challenging fundamental views about the planet.

  • Exposure to new plants and animals increased awareness of biological diversity.


Chapter 2

EVOLUTIONTHE INSPIRATIONSJOHN RAY 1627-1705

  • John Ray, a minister educated at Cambridge University, developed the concept of species.

  • He recognized that groups of plants and animals could be differentiated from other groups by their ability to mate with one another and produce offspring.

  • He placed such groups of reproductively isolated organisms into a single category, which he called the species.


Chapter 2

EVOLUTIONTHE INSPIRATIONSCAROLUS LINNAEUS 1707-1778

  • Carolus Linnaeus, a Swedish naturalist who developed a method of classifying plants and animals.

  • In SystemaNaturae, first published in 1735, he standardized Ray’s use of genus and species terminology and established the system of binomial nomenclature.

  • He added two more categories: class and order.

  • Linnaeus’ four-level system became the basis for taxonomy.


Chapter 2

EVOLUTIONTHE INSPIRATIONSCAROLUS LINNAEUS 1707-1778


Chapter 2

EVOLUTIONTHE INSPIRATIONSERASMUS DARWIN1731-1802

  • Erasmus Darwin, Charles Darwin’s grandfather

  • Physician, poet, and leading member of an intellectual community in England

  • In a poem, expressed the view that life had originated in the seas and all species descended from a common ancestor.

  • Charles read his grandfather’s writings, but how much he was influenced by them is unknown.


Chapter 2

EVOLUTIONTHE INSPIRATIONSJEAN-BAPTISTE LAMARCK 1744-1829

  • Jean-Baptiste Lamarck developed a theory to explain the evolutionary process, known as the inheritance of acquired characteristics.

  • An example is the giraffe: having stripped the leaves from the lower branches of a tree, the animal tries to reach leaves on upper branches.

  • The neck becomes slightly longer.

  • The longer neck is passed on to offspring.

France


  • Login