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AP Notes Chapter 14. Solutions and Their Behavior. Solution a homogeneous mixture of two or more components. Solute component(s) present in lesser quantity. Solvent component present in greater quantity.

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Ap notes chapter 14

AP Notes Chapter 14

Solutions and Their Behavior


Solution

a homogeneous mixture of two or more components

Solute

component(s) present in lesser quantity

Solvent

component present in greater quantity


A saturated solution contains the maximum quantity of solute that dissolves at that temperature.

An unsaturated solution contains less than the maximum quantity of solute that dissolves at that temperature.

Supersaturated Solutions contain more than is possible and are unstable.


Liquid Solutions that dissolves at that temperature.

1. molarity, M


2. mass % that dissolves at that temperature.


3. mole fraction, that dissolves at that temperature.(A)


4. molality, m that dissolves at that temperature.


Molal that dissolves at that temperature.

Sol’n

Molar

Sol’n


Ideal Solution that dissolves at that temperature.

P(A)0 is the VP of volatile solvent A at a particular temperature


Properties of Ideal Solutions that dissolves at that temperature.

 if P(A) is the vapor pressure of a solution of volatile solvent A, and non-volatile solute B, then

P(A) (A)


or that dissolves at that temperature.

P(A) = (A) . P(A)0

[Raoult’s Law]

VP Solution


for a solution where 2 components are that dissolves at that temperature.volatile

P(T) = P(A) + P(B)

= (A) . P(A)0 + (B) . P(B)0


Ideal Solutions that dissolves at that temperature.


Real Solutions that dissolves at that temperature.

Positive deviation

Negative deviation


Properties of Ideal Solutions that dissolves at that temperature.

 if P(A) is the vapor pressure of a solution of volatile solvent A, and non-volatile solute B, then

P(A) (A)


Properties of Ideal Solutions that dissolves at that temperature.

2. NO volume changes occur during the solution process


Properties of Ideal Solutions that dissolves at that temperature.

3. NO heat is evolved or absorbed during the solution process


Raoult’s Law is valid only for VERY dilute solutions or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions


Solubility Factors or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

like

dissolves

like


Polar H or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions2O

Non-polar I2

Polar H2O

Non-polar I2

Non-polar CCl4

Non-polar CCl4

Solvent Extraction


O or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

//

H2C-O-C-R

| O

| //

H2C-O-C-R

| O

| //

H2C-O-C-R

a “fat”

+ 3 NaOH 

R = (CH2)16CH3


H or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions2C-O-H

|

|

H2C-O-H

|

|

H2C-O-H

O

\\

+ 3 R-C-O- Na+

a “soap”


Surfactants
Surfactants or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

  • Surface acting agents

  • Lowers surface tension

  • Enables solvation

  • Those used for cleaning are commonly called detergents


Temperature or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions


SOLIDS or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions


GASES or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions


Pressure or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

Sg = kHPg

Henry’s Law


Colligative or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

Properties


Property whose magnitude depends or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutionssolely on the concentration of particles, NOT on the nature of the particles


Electrolyte
Electrolyte or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

solute that forms ions in solution which conducts a current


Non electrolyte
Non-Electrolyte or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

solute that remains as molecules in solution which does NOT conduct a current


molality or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

moles of substance measured through mass before solution process takes place


Colligative Properties of Non-Electrolytes or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions


1. or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutionsVapor Pressure Lowering

VP Lowering


1. or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutionsVapor Pressure Lowering

A = solvent ; B = solute

cA + cB = 1


1. or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutionsVapor Pressure Lowering

A = solvent ; B = solute

cA + cB = 1

cA = 1 - cB


but: or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

PA = cAPoA

thus:

PA = (1 - cB) PoA

or: PA = PoA - cBPoA



boiling point A is a function

temperature where vapor pressure of solvent equals the atmospheric pressure


2. A is a function Boiling Point

Elevation


A is a function Tbp m


A is a function Tbp m

Tbp = kbpm

where kbp = a constant that is a function of the solvent


units on k A is a function bp ?


units on k A is a function bp ?


Freezing Water A is a function

Freezing Solution

3. Freezing Point

Depression


A is a function Tfp m


A is a function Tfp m

Tfp kfp m

kfp = freezing point constant


k A is a function fp = kbp

for the same solvent


OSMOSIS A is a function

the flow of solvent into a solution through a semi-permeable membrane


Examples A is a function

Egg Rxn

Microscopic Perspective

Egg Explanation

Macroscopic Perspective


4. A is a function Osmotic Pressure

the pressure that must be applied to a solution to stop osmosis


Reverse A is a function

Osmosis


4. A is a function Osmotic Pressure

 = osmotic pressure

 V = nB R T


or A is a function

 = MB R T

MB = Molarity of solute





Compound A is a function i

NaCl

MgSO4

MgCl2

FeCl3


Compound A is a function i

NaCl 1.9

MgSO4 1.3

MgCl2 2.7

FeCl3 3.4


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