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### AP Notes Chapter 14

Solutions and Their Behavior

a homogeneous mixture of two or more components

Solute

component(s) present in lesser quantity

Solvent

component present in greater quantity

A saturated solution contains the maximum quantity of solute that dissolves at that temperature.

An unsaturated solution contains less than the maximum quantity of solute that dissolves at that temperature.

Supersaturated Solutions contain more than is possible and are unstable.

Liquid Solutions that dissolves at that temperature.

1. molarity, M

2. mass % that dissolves at that temperature.

3. mole fraction, that dissolves at that temperature.(A)

4. molality, m that dissolves at that temperature.

Ideal Solution that dissolves at that temperature.

P(A)0 is the VP of volatile solvent A at a particular temperature

Properties of Ideal Solutions that dissolves at that temperature.

if P(A) is the vapor pressure of a solution of volatile solvent A, and non-volatile solute B, then

P(A) (A)

for a solution where 2 components are that dissolves at that temperature.volatile

P(T) = P(A) + P(B)

= (A) . P(A)0 + (B) . P(B)0

Ideal Solutions that dissolves at that temperature.

Properties of Ideal Solutions that dissolves at that temperature.

if P(A) is the vapor pressure of a solution of volatile solvent A, and non-volatile solute B, then

P(A) (A)

Properties of Ideal Solutions that dissolves at that temperature.

2. NO volume changes occur during the solution process

Properties of Ideal Solutions that dissolves at that temperature.

3. NO heat is evolved or absorbed during the solution process

Raoult’s Law is valid only for VERY dilute solutions or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

Polar H or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions2O

Non-polar I2

Polar H2O

Non-polar I2

Non-polar CCl4

Non-polar CCl4

Solvent Extraction

O or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

//

H2C-O-C-R

| O

| //

H2C-O-C-R

| O

| //

H2C-O-C-R

a “fat”

+ 3 NaOH

R = (CH2)16CH3

Surfactants or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

- Surface acting agents
- Lowers surface tension
- Enables solvation
- Those used for cleaning are commonly called detergents

Temperature or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

SOLIDS or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

GASES or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

Colligative or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

Properties

Property whose magnitude depends or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutionssolely on the concentration of particles, NOT on the nature of the particles

Electrolyte or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

solute that forms ions in solution which conducts a current

Non-Electrolyte or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

solute that remains as molecules in solution which does NOT conduct a current

molality or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

moles of substance measured through mass before solution process takes place

Colligative Properties of Non-Electrolytes or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutions

1. or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutionsVapor Pressure Lowering

VP Lowering

1. or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutionsVapor Pressure Lowering

A = solvent ; B = solute

cA + cB = 1

1. or some nonpolar - nonpolar solutionsVapor Pressure Lowering

A = solvent ; B = solute

cA + cB = 1

cA = 1 - cB

NOTE: the lowering of the vapor pressure of the pure solvent A is a function only

of cB (solute)

boiling point A is a function

temperature where vapor pressure of solvent equals the atmospheric pressure

2. A is a function Boiling Point

Elevation

A is a function Tbp m

units on k A is a function bp ?

units on k A is a function bp ?

A is a function Tfp m

k A is a function fp = kbp

for the same solvent

OSMOSIS A is a function

the flow of solvent into a solution through a semi-permeable membrane

4. A is a function Osmotic Pressure

the pressure that must be applied to a solution to stop osmosis

Reverse A is a function

Osmosis

Colligative Properties of Electrolytes A is a function

Must adjust for degree of dissociation A is a function

- i = van’t Hoff factor A is a function
- Tbp = i kbp m
- Tfp = i kfp m
- = i

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