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Lecture 15 Bayesian Networks in Computer VisionPowerPoint Presentation

Lecture 15 Bayesian Networks in Computer Vision

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### Lecture 15Bayesian Networks in Computer Vision

### Details

### Software (CPDs)

### Examples of Use (CPDs)

Gary Bradski

Sebastian Thrun

*

http://robots.stanford.edu/cs223b/index.html

What is a Bayesian Network?

It’s a Factored Joint Distribution and/or Causal Diagram

P(W)

(random)

variables

A conditional probability distribution quantifies the effects of the parents on node.

The graph is directed and acyclic.

causal links

dependencies

P(A|W)

P(C|W)

P(R|C,A)

P(F|C)

A joint distribution, here p(W,C,A,R,R), is everything we can know about the problem,

but it grows exponentially, here 25-1=31. Factoring the distribution in a Bayesnet

decreases the number of parameters, here from 31 to 11(note probabilities sum to one

which decreases the number of parameters to be specified).

Causality and Bayesian Nets

- One can also think of Bayesian Networks as a “Circuit Diagram” of Probability Models
- The Links indicate causal effect, not direction of information flow.
- Just as we can predict effects of changes on the circuit diagram, we can predict consequences of “operating” on our probability model diagram.

Diode

Mains

Capac.

Transf.

Diode

Observed

Ammeter

Un-Observed

Battery

Inference

- Once we have a model, we need to make it consistent by “diffusing” the distributions around until they are all consistent with one another.
- Central algorithm for this:
Belief Propagation

“Diagnostic” message

Messages

Specifically:

1/a

9

Bayes Law:

Belief PropagationGoing down arrow, sum out parent

Going up arrow, Bayes Law

Message

* some figures from: Peter Lucas BN lecture course

Diagnostic message against arrow

Causal message with arrow

Bayes Law:

Belief Propagation* some figures from: Peter Lucas BN lecture course

Inference in general graphs

- Belief propagation is only guaranteed to be correct for trees
- A general graph should be converted to a junction tree, by clustering nodes
- Computationally complexity is exponential in size of the resulting clusters (NP-hard)

X1

X1

X1

X3

X2

X3

X3

X2

X2

X5

X4

X5

X5

X4

X4

X6

X6

X6

Junction tree: BN Junction TreeAlgorithm for turning a Bayesian Network with loops into a junction tree

- “Moralize” the graph by connecting parents
- Drop the arrows.
- Triangulate (connect nodes if a loop of >3 exists)
- Put in intersection variables

Graph:

(1)

(2)

(3)

X1

X3

X2

X5

X4

X6

Junction Tree:

Image from

Sam Roweis

* Lauritzen 96

Collect

root

root

root

root

Global message passing: Two pass- Select one clique as the root
- Two pass message passing: first collect evidence, then distribute evidence.

Figure from P. Green

X1

X3

X4

X2

Stage 1.

Stage 2.

X1

X3

X4

X2

Global message passing: Parallel, distributed version- All nodes can simultaneously send messages out, if it has received the messages from all its parents
- Parallel processing (topology level parallelism).

Junction Tree Algorithm

b

{c,d}

c

{c}

d

e

a

b

{a,b,c}

{c}

{c,e}

c

d

e

Junction Tree PropertiesGraph:

Moralized, triangular graph:

An undirected graph whose vertices (clusters) are sets of variables with three properties:

- Singly connected property (only one path)
- Potential property (all variables are represented)
- Running intersection property (variable in 2 nodes implies that all nodes on the path have the variable)

Junction Tree:

Collect and Distribute pass

necessary for Inference

Message Passing in Junction Tree

- Potential
- U, the space of U (subset of the set of all nodes/vertices V) is the Cartesian product of the state sets of the nodes of U
- A discrete potential on U is a mapping from U to the non-negative real numbers Ro.
- Each clique and seperator in the junction tree has a potential (actually marginalized joint distribution on the nodes in the clique/seperator)

- Propagation/message passing between two adjacent cliques C1, C2 (S0 is their seperator)
- Marginalize C1’s potential to get new potential for S0
- Update C2’s potential
- Update S0’s potential to its new potential

Message Passing General

- BayesNet forms a tree
- Pearl’s algorithm is Message Passing first out and then back in from a given node

- Not a tree (has loops)
- Turn loops into cliques until net is a tree, then use Pearl’s algorithm

- Cliques turn out to be too big
- Exact computation is exponential in size of largest cliques
- Use approximation algorithms (many)

From Bayes’ Net to Decision/Influence Network

Start out with a causal Bayesian Network. In this case,

Possible causes of leaf loss in an apple tree.

We want to know what to do about this.

We duplicate the network because we are going to

Add an intervention: Treating sickness

The intervention will cost us,

but might help with our utility:

Making a profit when we Harvest.

Given the cost, we can now infer the optimal

Treat/no-treat policy

healthy, don’t treat

No fever means, cold

less likely => Treat

No fever, runny nose =>

allergy => treat

Replicate cold net and add

decision and cost/utility nodes

Influence ExampleProbabilistic graphical models

Probabilistic models

Graphical models

Directed

Undirected

(Bayesian belief nets)

(Markov nets)

Alarm network

State-space models

HMMs

Naïve Bayes classifier

PCA/ ICA

Markov Random Field

Boltzmann machine

Ising model

Max-ent model

Log-linear models

Typical forms for the Conditional Probability Distributions (CPDs)at graph nodes

- For Discrete-statenodes
- Tabular (CPT)
- Decision tree
- Deterministic CPD
- SoftMax(logistic/sigmoid)
- Noisy-OR
- MLP
- SVM?

- For Continuous-state nodes
- Gaussian
- Mixture of Gaussians
- Linear Gaussian
- Conditional Gaussian
- Regression tree

We can (CPDs)’t always compute exact inference. We then useApproximate Inference

Importance sampling

MCMC

Beam search

A* search

Expectation

Propagation

Mean field

Libraries

Append A (CPDs)

Bayesian Net SoftwareAppend C (CPDs)

BN ResearchersMAJOR RESEARCHERS

Microsoft: http://www.research.microsoft.com/research/dtg/Heckerman & Chickering are big there, currently pushing uses of Dependency Networks

Prof. Russell (Berkeley): http://http.cs.berkeley.edu/~russell/ Wants more expressive probabilistic language. Currently pushing

Center for Intelligent Systems at Berkeleyhttp://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/CIS Brings together wide range of luminaries

Prof. Jordan (Berkeley): http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~jordan/ Writing book, Data retrieval, structure learning, clustering. Variational methods, All.

Yair Weiss (Berkely=>Hebrew U): http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~yweiss/ Computationally tractable approximation. Vision, now at Hebrew U.

Prof. Koller (Stanford): http://robotics.stanford.edu/~koller/courses.html Writing book, probabilistic relational models (PRMs) more expressive languages, All.

Prof. Frey (Waterloo): http://www.cs.toronto.edu/~frey/ Vision models, machine learning reformulations

Prof. Pearl (UCLA): http://bayes.cs.ucla.edu/jp_home.html Founder. Causality theory

Bill Freeman (MIT, was MERL, Learning, vision): http://www.ai.mit.edu/people/wtf/ Low level vision, learning theory now at MIT

Peter Spirtes (CMU, Tetrad project): http://hss.cmu.edu/HTML/departments/philosophy/people/directory/Peter_Spirtes.html

Kevin Murphy(MIT, BN Toolkit):http://www.ai.mit.edu/~murphyk/ Toolboxes (BNT), computational speedups, tutorials

Jonathan Yedidia (MERL): http://www.merl.com/people/yedidia/Learning theory

Pietro Perona (CalTech):http://www.erc.caltech.edu/ Vision

Center for NeuroMorphic informationhttp://www.erc.caltech.edu/ Brings together machine learning, BN, vision, design etc

Ron Parr (Duke University) http://www.cs.duke.edu/~parr/Game theory, reinforcement, multi-agent

Nir Friedman (Hebrew U): http://www.cs.huji.ac.il/~nirf/Computational biology, efficient inference

Avi Pfeffer (Harvard): http://www.eecs.harvard.edu/~avi/Richer probabilistic expressibility, intelligent systems

Zoubin Ghahramani (Gatsby Institute, London): http://www.gatsby.ucl.ac.uk/~zoubinVariational Bayes

Finn Jensen, (Hugin, Denmark): http://www.cs.auc.dk/~fvjClassical (expert-system style) BNs

Uffe Kjaerulff, (Hugin, Denmark): http://www.cs.auc.dk/~ukDitto

Eric Horvitz, (Microsoft): http://research.microsoft.com/~horvitz/Decision making, user interface

Tommi Jaakkola, (MIT): http://www.ai.mit.edu/people/tommi/tommi.htmlTheory, structure learning from bio data

Ross Shachter, (Stanford): http://www.stanford.edu/dept/MSandE/faculty/shachter/Influence diagrams

David Spiegelhalter, (Univ. College London): http://www.mrc-bsu.cam.ac.uk/BSUsite/AboutUs/People/davids.shtmlBayesian and medical BNs

Steffan Laurizten, (Europe): http://www.math.auc.dk/~steffen/Statisical theory

Phil Dawid, (Univ College London): http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucak06d/Statistical theory

Kathy Laskey, (George Mason): http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucak06d/Object-oriented BNs, military applications

Jeff Bilmes, (U Washington): http://www.ee.washington.edu/faculty/bilmes/DBNs for speech

Hagai Attias, (Microsoft): http://research.microsoft.com/users/hagaia/Variational and sampling for (acoustic) signal processing

World wide list of Bayesians (not just networks): http://bayes.stat.washington.edu/bayes_people.html

CONFERENCES

UAI: http://robotics.stanford.edu/~uai01/

NIPS: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/Groups/NIPS/

Present Library: (CPDs)

Append C

PNL vs. Other Graphical Models LibrariesIntel Library is much more comprehensive

Applications

System: (CPDs)

Learn Gabor filter “jet” at each

point

Add Pose switching variable

Face Modeling and Recognition Using Bayesian NetworksGang Song*, Tao Wang, Yimin Zhang, Wei Hu, Guangyou Xu*, Gary BradskiFace feature finder (separate)

Face Modeling and Recognition Using Bayesian Networks (CPDs)Gang Song*, Tao Wang, Yimin Zhang, Wei Hu, Guangyou Xu*, Gary Bradski

Results:

Results:

Pose

BNPFR – Bayesnet with Pose

BNFR – Bayesnet w/o Pose

EHMM – Embedded HMM

EGM – Gabor jets

The Segmentation Problem (CPDs)

Looking for all possible joint configuration J is computationally impractical. Therefore, segmentation takes place in two stages. First, we segment the head and torso, and determine the position of the neck. Then, we jointly segment the upper arms, forearms and hands, and determine the position of the remaining joints.

Step I

Step II

state assignments for the arm and head&torso regions

joints for the arms and head&torso components.

Upper Body Model (CPDs)

HandSizeSh

ForearmSize Sf

UpperArm SizeSa

HeadSizeShd

UpperArm SizeSa

ForearmSize Sf

HandSizeSh

TorsoSizeSt

Anthropological MeasurementsA

LeftWristWl

LeftElbowEl

LeftShoulderSl

NeckN

RightShoulderSr

RightElbowEr

RightWristWr

JointsJ

HeadH

TorsoT

LeftHand Hl

LeftForearmFl

LeftUpper ArmUl

RightUpper ArmUr

RightForearmFr

RightHandHl

ComponentsC

ObservationsOij

ObservationsO

Body Tracking Results (CPDs)

Audio-Visual Continuous Speech Recognition. The Overall System

Face Detection

Mouth Detection

Mouth Tracking

Visual Features

Audio video signal

Train

Reco

AV Model

Acoustic Features (MFCC)

Speaker Independent AVCSR System

AV Speech Reco

Audio observations of size 13, modeled with 3states, 32 mixture/state, diagonal covariance matrix (39 English phoenemes).

Visual observations of size 13, modeled with 3states, 12 mixture/state, diagonal covariance matrix (13 English visemes).

A coupled HMM for audio visual speech recognition

AVCSR Experimental Results System

- WER obtained on X2MTVS database, 300 speakers, 10 digit enumeration sentences.

The system improves by over 55% the recognition rate of the acoustic only speech recognition at SNR 0db!

MRFs for Hyper-Resolution System

Bill Freeman (MIT AI Lab) created a simple model of early visual

processing:

He presented blurred images and trained on the sharp original, then

tested on new images

Input

Cubic Spline

Bayesian Net

Actual

MRFs for Shape from Shading System

The illumination, which changes with each frame,

is factored from the reflectance which stays the same:

Frames over

time =>

vs.

This model is then used to insert graphics with proper lighting:

Blei, Jordan Malik System

Blei, Jordan Malik System

Blei, Jordan Malik System

Blei, Jordan Malik System

Example of learned models System(from Frey)

Example of learned models System(from Frey)

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