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Managerial Leadership MGTO 234 - 7. Dr. William A. Snow Hong Kong University of Science & Technology Department of Management of Organizations College of Business & Management. From Then (1940s) to Now (2001): Brief Overview of Leadership Evolution.

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Managerial leadership mgto 234 7

Managerial LeadershipMGTO 234 - 7

Dr. William A. Snow

Hong Kong University of Science & Technology

Department of Management of Organizations

College of Business & Management

From then 1940s to now 2001 brief overview of leadership evolution

From Then (1940s) to Now (2001): Brief Overview of Leadership Evolution

Ohio State Leadership Studies: Task and Relationship (1940s-Ralph Stodgill)

  • Initiating structure: A type of leader behavior that describes the extent to which a leader is task oriented and directs subordinates’ work activities toward goal achievement

  • Consideration: A type of leader behavior that describes the extent to which a leader is sensitive to subordinates, respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust.

Leader behavior

Leader Behavior


Initiating Structure

Leadership grid production and people 1960s blake mouton

Leadership Grid-Production and People (1960s-Blake & Mouton)

  • Concern for people

  • Concern for production

  • 5 distinct styles of management-preferences

    • Impoverished Management (1, 1)

    • Country Club Management (1, 9)

    • Authority-Obedience Management (9, 1)

    • Organizational Man Management (5, 5)

    • Team Management (9, 9)

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Contingency Theories of Leadership

Normative decision model

Normative Decision Model

  • The Normative Decision Model, is directed at determining how much input subordinates should have in the decision making process.

Decision making processes

Decision-making processes

  • To determine which situational and follower factors affect the level of participation and group performance, Vroom and Yetton investigated the decision-making processes leaders use in group settings.

Continuum of decision making processes

Continuum of decision-making processes


Decision process


Decision quality

Decision acceptance

Subordinate development

B. Does leader have sufficient information?

D. Acceptance important for implementation?

E. If decision made is solely by leader, will it be accepted by subordinates?

F. Do subordinates share organizational goals?

G. Is conflict over preferred solution likely?

A. Quality requirement?

C. Is problem structured?



The path goal theory

The Path-Goal Theory

The Path-Goal Theory:

  • deals with:

    • expectancy

    • performance-to-outcome probabilities, and

    • assigned valences or values to outcome.

The path goal theory1

The Path-Goal Theory

  • Expectancy -If I study for 12 hours, what is the probability I will get an A on the exam?

  • Performance-to-outcome probabilities - If I get an A on the final, what is the probability of getting an A in the course?

  • Assigned valences or values to outcome - How much do I value a higher GPA

Path goal theory and interactional framework

Path-Goal Theory and Interactional Framework

Leader behavior: Directive, Supportive, Participative, Achievement-oriented



Skills and abilities

expectations and work perceptions of own group abilities


Acceptance of leader

Follower motivation

Follower satisfaction



Contingency model situational late 1960s fiedler

Contingency Model-Situational (late 1960s-Fiedler)

  • Three major situational variables:

    • Leader-member relations

    • Task structure

    • Position power

  • Task oriented leaders tend to perform best in group situations that are either very favorable or very unfavorable to the leader

  • Relationship oriented leaders tend to perform best in situations that are intermediate in favorableness

3 d management style theory situational 1970s william reddin

3-D Management Style Theory-Situational (1970s-William Reddin)

  • The effectiveness of leaders depends on how appropriate their leadership style is to the situation in which they operate

  • A variety of styles can be effective or ineffective depending on the situation

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  • The third dimension in Reddin’s model is effectiveness

  • Effectiveness/environment – Interaction of the leader’s style with the “place” of work

Situational leadership

Situational Leadership

  • Paul Hersey, Kenneth H. Blanchard, & Dewey E. Johnson, Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources. (1996.) 7th Edition. Prentice-Hall Publishers, Upper Saddle River, NJ., USA. Page 7.

  • “Management is the process of working with and through individuals and groups and other resources (such as equipment, capital, and technology) to accomplish organizational goals.”

  • “Leadership occurs whenever one person attempts to influence the behavior of an individual or group, regardless of the reason.”

  • “Leadership is a broader concept than management.”

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L = f (l, f, s)The leadership process is a function of the leader, the follower, and other situational variables.

  • Variables: Job, Situation, People

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  • No mention of the type of organization

  • Could be business, educational institution, hospital, political organization, or family

  • Anytime an individual attempts to influence the behavior of someone else that individual is the potential leader-boss, colleague, subordinate, friend, relative, or group

Chapter 12

Chapter 12

Followers and Followership

Effective followers

Effective followers

  • Effective followers “have the vision to see both the forest and the trees, the social capacity to work well with others, the strength of character to flourish without heroic status, the moral and psychological balance to pursue personal and corporate goals at no cost to either, and, above all, the desire to participate in a team effort for the accomplishment of some greater purpose.”

Characteristics of followership

Characteristics of Followership

  • Cohesion

  • Supporting top leadership

  • Raising issues with top leadership

  • Taking initiative

  • Taking personal responsibility for performance

Five style of followers

Five Style of Followers

  • Alienated Followers

  • Conformist Followers

  • Pragmatist Followers

  • Passive Followers

  • Exemplary Followers



  • Partnering deals with the quality of relationships between leaders and followers rather than on characteristics of leaders and followers.

Situational characteristics

Situational Characteristics

  • Crises

  • Task Interdependence

  • Innovation

  • More Receptive to Change

  • Organizational Downsizing

Chapter 15

Chapter 15

Characteristics of the Situation



  • Historically, researchers maintained that the situation, not someone’s traits or abilities, plays the most important role in determining who emerges as a leader. They also believed that leaders were made, not born, and that prior leadership experience helped forge effective leaders.

More recently

More recently

  • Leadership theories have explored how situational factors affect leaders’ behaviors.

  • a leader’s behavior was said to be depend on a leader’s perceptions of several critical aspects of the situation

    • rules and regulations governing the job

    • role expectations of subordinates

    • peers, and superiors

    • the nature of the task

    • and feedback about the subordinates’ performance.

The congruence model is a systems model with inputs processes and outputs

The Congruence Model is a systems model with inputs, processes, and outputs.

  • Input, which consists of the environment, resources, and history.

  • Processes, which consist of the work, people, formal organization, and informal organization.

  • Output, which consists of the system, unit, and individual.

Congruence model

Congruence Model

  • The core of the Congruence Model has four components:

    • the work,

    • the people,

    • the formal organizational,

    • the informal organization.

Congruence model1

Congruence Model

  • The work is “what is to be done” by the organization and its component parts.

  • The people refers to the leader and followers and their skills, knowledge, experience, expectations, needs and preferences.

Congruence model2

Congruence Model

  • The formal organization addresses how the level of authority, organizational structure, organizational design, lateral interdependence, and organizational culture affect leaders’ and followers’ behavior.

  • The informal organization refers to its culture (shared backgrounds, norms, values, or beliefs.)

Environmental characteristics

Environmental characteristics

  • Environmental characteristics concern situational factors outside the task or organization that still affect the leadership process. These include technological, economic, political, social, and legal forces.

Situational leadership 1970s hersey blanchard

Situational Leadership (1970s-Hersey & Blanchard)

  • Task, Relationship, Effectiveness

  • Task behavior: Extent to which leader engages in spelling out the duties and responsibilities of an individual or group

  • Relationship behavior: Extent to which leader engages in two-way or multiway communication.

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  • Follower readiness: 2 types

    • Ability: knowledge, skills, experience

    • Willingness: confidence, commitment and motivation to accomplish specific task

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  • Relationship between Leader Behavior and Follower Readiness

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  • Lead Self Instrument

  • Directions for Scoring

  • Correct Answers

  • Video, “12 Angry Men”

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