Blood
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Blood. Fluid connective tissue Function: transport cells & dissolved matter Ground substance = plasma Formed elements = cells & cell fragments. 1-RBC 2-WBCs 4-Platelets. Blood. Erythrocytes (RBCs) – O2 & CO2 Leukocytes (WBCs) – immune functions Neutrophils Eosinophils, Basophils

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Blood

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Blood

Blood

  • Fluid connective tissue

  • Function: transport cells & dissolved matter

  • Ground substance = plasma

  • Formed elements = cells & cell fragments


Blood

1-RBC

2-WBCs

4-Platelets


Blood1

Blood

  • Erythrocytes (RBCs) – O2 & CO2

  • Leukocytes (WBCs) – immune functions

    • Neutrophils

    • Eosinophils,

    • Basophils

    • Lymphocytes

    • Monocytes

  • Platelets – cell fragments, clotting & vessel growth factor


  • Nerve tissue

    Nerve Tissue

    • Excitable tissue – has membrane potential

      • Voltage difference between outer & inner membrane

    • Results in rapid transition of signals to other cells

    • Located brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia


    Nerve tissue1

    Nerve Tissue

    • Neuron (nerve cell)

      • Soma (cell body)

      • Dendrites (input)

      • Axon (output)

    • Neuroglia or Glial cells (white matter)


    Muscle tissue table 5 10

    Muscle Tissue (Table 5.10)

    • Specialized contractile cells (spindle)

    • Exert physical force on other tissues

    • Important source of body heat (contraction)

    • 3 types of muscle:

      • Skeletal

      • Cardiac

      • Smooth


    Skeletal muscle

    Skeletal Muscle

    • Long cylindrical cells – muscle fibers

    • Striated (alternating light & dark bands)

    • Voluntary (conscious control over contraction)


    Cardiac muscle

    Cardiac Muscle

    • Only in the heart

    • Shorter cells – myocytes

    • Joined together at ends by intercalated discs

    • Striated & involuntary


    Smooth muscle

    Smooth Muscle

    • Short fusiform cells

    • Non-striated with only one central nucleus

    • Involuntary contraction

    • Primary muscles of viscera


    Intercellular junctions

    Intercellular Junctions

    • Connections between cells

    • Means of Communication

    • Resists stress to tissue


    Tight junctions

    Tight Junctions

    • Encircles cell near Apex

    • Zipperlike with grooves and ridges

    • Prevents passage between cells


    Desmosomes

    Desmosomes

    • “Snap-like”

    • Doesn’t encircle cell

    • Located in epidermis, cardiac myo, & cervix


    Gap junctions

    Gap Junctions

    • Protein ring around water-filled pore

    • small solutes pass through cell to cell

    • Intercalated discs & smooth myo

    • Allows ions flow for electrical excitation


    Endocrine exocrine glands

    Endocrine & Exocrine Glands

    • Exocrine glands secrete through duct

      • Sweat, mammary, tears

    • Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into bloodstream

      • Pituitary, thyroid, adrenals

    • Some organs have both kinds

      • liver, gonads, pancreas


    Exocrine gland structure

    Exocrine Gland Structure

    • Enclosed in fibrous capsule

    • Septa or trabeculae divide glands into lobes

    • Stroma is framework (CT)

    • Parenchyma are active cells


    Types of exocrine glands

    Types of Exocrine Glands

    • Simple unbranched duct

    • Compound branched duct

    • Shape of gland: acinar - secretory cells form dilated sac tubuloacinar - both tube and sacs


    Types of secretions

    Types of Secretions

    • Serous glands

      • thin, watery secretions

      • sweat, milk, tears and digestive juices

    • Mucous glands

      • Mucin + water = mucus

    • Mixed glands contain both types

      • Some salivary glands

    • Cytogenic glands release whole cells

      • sperm & egg cells


    Methods of exocrine secretion

    Methods of Exocrine Secretion

    • Merocrine (eccrine) Glands

      • Secretes via exocytosis

      • Tears, pancreas, gastric, sweat

    • Apocrine (also merocrine)

    • Holocrine

      • Entire cell disintegrates

      • Sebaceous glands of scalp


    Merocrine holocrine secretion

    Merocrine & Holocrine Secretion


    Mucous membranes

    Mucous Membranes

    Lamina propria = areolar connective tissue


    Tissue growth

    Tissue Growth

    • Hyperplasia = growth by cell multiplication

    • Hypertrophy = growth by increasing size

      • muscle grow through exercise

    • Neoplasia = tumor growth (benign or malignant) abnormal, nonfunctional tissue


    Changes in tissue types

    Changes in Tissue Types

    • Differentiation

      • Development of unspecialized tissues into specialized mature types

        • mesenchyme becomes muscle

    • Metaplasia

      • Mature tissue change into another

        • Normal: simple cuboidal tissue before puberty changes to stratified squamous after puberty

        • Abnormal: smokers – pseudostratified columnar of bronchi into stratified squamous


    Stem cells undifferentiated cells

    Stem Cells-undifferentiated cells

    • Embryonic stem cells

      • Totipotent (any cell type possible)

        • source = cells of very early embryo

      • Pluripotent (tissue types only possible)

        • source = cells of inner cell mass of embryo

    • Adult stem cells

      • Multipotent (several possible cell type – but not all)

      • Unipotent (only epidermal cells produced)


    Tissue repair

    Tissue Repair

    • Regeneration

      • replacement of damaged cells with functioning cells

      • skin injuries and liver regenerate

    • Fibrosis

      • replacement of damaged cells with scar tissue

        • Loss of function - healing muscle injuries, scarring of lung tissue in TB or healing of severe cuts and burns of the skin

      • Keloid - excessive fibrosis during healing (raised shiny scars)


    Blood

    Clot & Scab forms on surface

    Macrophages start to clean up debris

    Antibodies, clotting factors and WBCs drawn wound


    Blood

    New capillaries – Fibroblasts deposit collagen – May last 2 weeks

    Epithelials multiply beneath scab Epi-layer thickens

    Connective tissue scars (fibrosis)

    Phase may last 2 years


    Tissue shrinkage and death

    Tissue Shrinkage and Death

    • Atrophy = loss of cell size or number

      • disuse atrophy from lack of use (leg in a cast)

    • Necrosis = pathological death of tissue

      • gangrene – tissue death from lack of blood

      • infarction - death of heart tissue from lack of blood

    • Apoptosis = programmed cell death

      • cells shrink and are phagocytized (no inflammation)


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