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Blood. Fluid connective tissue Function: transport cells & dissolved matter Ground substance = plasma Formed elements = cells & cell fragments. 1-RBC 2-WBCs 4-Platelets. Blood. Erythrocytes (RBCs) – O2 & CO2 Leukocytes (WBCs) – immune functions Neutrophils Eosinophils, Basophils

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blood
Blood
  • Fluid connective tissue
  • Function: transport cells & dissolved matter
  • Ground substance = plasma
  • Formed elements = cells & cell fragments
slide2

1-RBC

2-WBCs

4-Platelets

blood1
Blood
  • Erythrocytes (RBCs) – O2 & CO2
  • Leukocytes (WBCs) – immune functions
      • Neutrophils
      • Eosinophils,
      • Basophils
      • Lymphocytes
      • Monocytes
  • Platelets – cell fragments, clotting & vessel growth factor
nerve tissue
Nerve Tissue
  • Excitable tissue – has membrane potential
    • Voltage difference between outer & inner membrane
  • Results in rapid transition of signals to other cells
  • Located brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia
nerve tissue1
Nerve Tissue
  • Neuron (nerve cell)
    • Soma (cell body)
    • Dendrites (input)
    • Axon (output)
  • Neuroglia or Glial cells (white matter)
muscle tissue table 5 10
Muscle Tissue (Table 5.10)
  • Specialized contractile cells (spindle)
  • Exert physical force on other tissues
  • Important source of body heat (contraction)
  • 3 types of muscle:
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
skeletal muscle
Skeletal Muscle
  • Long cylindrical cells – muscle fibers
  • Striated (alternating light & dark bands)
  • Voluntary (conscious control over contraction)
cardiac muscle
Cardiac Muscle
  • Only in the heart
  • Shorter cells – myocytes
  • Joined together at ends by intercalated discs
  • Striated & involuntary
smooth muscle
Smooth Muscle
  • Short fusiform cells
  • Non-striated with only one central nucleus
  • Involuntary contraction
  • Primary muscles of viscera
intercellular junctions
Intercellular Junctions
  • Connections between cells
  • Means of Communication
  • Resists stress to tissue
tight junctions
Tight Junctions
  • Encircles cell near Apex
  • Zipperlike with grooves and ridges
  • Prevents passage between cells
desmosomes
Desmosomes
  • “Snap-like”
  • Doesn’t encircle cell
  • Located in epidermis, cardiac myo, & cervix
gap junctions
Gap Junctions
  • Protein ring around water-filled pore
  • small solutes pass through cell to cell
  • Intercalated discs & smooth myo
  • Allows ions flow for electrical excitation
endocrine exocrine glands
Endocrine & Exocrine Glands
  • Exocrine glands secrete through duct
    • Sweat, mammary, tears
  • Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into bloodstream
    • Pituitary, thyroid, adrenals
  • Some organs have both kinds
    • liver, gonads, pancreas
exocrine gland structure
Exocrine Gland Structure
  • Enclosed in fibrous capsule
  • Septa or trabeculae divide glands into lobes
  • Stroma is framework (CT)
  • Parenchyma are active cells
types of exocrine glands
Types of Exocrine Glands
  • Simple unbranched duct
  • Compound branched duct
  • Shape of gland: acinar - secretory cells form dilated sac tubuloacinar - both tube and sacs
types of secretions
Types of Secretions
  • Serous glands
    • thin, watery secretions
    • sweat, milk, tears and digestive juices
  • Mucous glands
    • Mucin + water = mucus
  • Mixed glands contain both types
    • Some salivary glands
  • Cytogenic glands release whole cells
    • sperm & egg cells
methods of exocrine secretion
Methods of Exocrine Secretion
  • Merocrine (eccrine) Glands
    • Secretes via exocytosis
    • Tears, pancreas, gastric, sweat
  • Apocrine (also merocrine)
  • Holocrine
    • Entire cell disintegrates
    • Sebaceous glands of scalp
mucous membranes
Mucous Membranes

Lamina propria = areolar connective tissue

tissue growth
Tissue Growth
  • Hyperplasia = growth by cell multiplication
  • Hypertrophy = growth by increasing size
    • muscle grow through exercise
  • Neoplasia = tumor growth (benign or malignant) abnormal, nonfunctional tissue
changes in tissue types
Changes in Tissue Types
  • Differentiation
    • Development of unspecialized tissues into specialized mature types
      • mesenchyme becomes muscle
  • Metaplasia
    • Mature tissue change into another
      • Normal: simple cuboidal tissue before puberty changes to stratified squamous after puberty
      • Abnormal: smokers – pseudostratified columnar of bronchi into stratified squamous
stem cells undifferentiated cells
Stem Cells-undifferentiated cells
  • Embryonic stem cells
    • Totipotent (any cell type possible)
      • source = cells of very early embryo
    • Pluripotent (tissue types only possible)
      • source = cells of inner cell mass of embryo
  • Adult stem cells
    • Multipotent (several possible cell type – but not all)
    • Unipotent (only epidermal cells produced)
tissue repair
Tissue Repair
  • Regeneration
    • replacement of damaged cells with functioning cells
    • skin injuries and liver regenerate
  • Fibrosis
    • replacement of damaged cells with scar tissue
      • Loss of function - healing muscle injuries, scarring of lung tissue in TB or healing of severe cuts and burns of the skin
    • Keloid - excessive fibrosis during healing (raised shiny scars)
slide30

Clot & Scab forms on surface

Macrophages start to clean up debris

Antibodies, clotting factors and WBCs drawn wound

slide31

New capillaries – Fibroblasts deposit collagen – May last 2 weeks

Epithelials multiply beneath scab Epi-layer thickens

Connective tissue scars (fibrosis)

Phase may last 2 years

tissue shrinkage and death
Tissue Shrinkage and Death
  • Atrophy = loss of cell size or number
    • disuse atrophy from lack of use (leg in a cast)
  • Necrosis = pathological death of tissue
    • gangrene – tissue death from lack of blood
    • infarction - death of heart tissue from lack of blood
  • Apoptosis = programmed cell death
    • cells shrink and are phagocytized (no inflammation)
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