Distinguishing between self and other how shared are shared representations marcel brass
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Distinguishing between self and other: How shared are shared representations? Marcel Brass. MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE. FOR HUMAN COGNITIVE AND BRAIN SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF COGNITIVE NEUROLOGY LEIPZIG. Cognitive psychology

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Distinguishing between self and other how shared are shared representations marcel brass
Distinguishing between self and other: How shared are shared representations?Marcel Brass

MAX

PLANCK

INSTITUTE

  • FOR

  • HUMAN

  • COGNITIVE AND BRAIN SCIENCES

  • DEPARTMENT OF COGNITIVE NEUROLOGY

  • LEIPZIG


Observation and execution of action are closely linked

Cognitive psychology representations?

movement observation has a strong influence on movement execution (Brass et al., 2000, 2001, Stuermer et al., 2000)

Social psychology

chameleon effect (Chartrand & Bargh, 1999)

Brain imaging

activation of motor related areas by action observation (e.g. Grezes & Decety, 1999)

Neurophysiology

mirror neurons (e.g. Rizzolatti & Craighero, 2004)

Observation and execution of action are closely linked


The direct matching hypothesis
The direct matching hypothesis representations?

Action observation leads to an activation of an internal motor representation.


Open questions

Why don‘t we imitate all the time representations??

Why don‘t we confuse internally generated and externally triggered motor representations?

Open questions


Neuropsychological findings

Luria (1966) representations?

prefrontal patients show echopractic response tendencies

Lhermitte et al. (1986), DeRenzi et al. (1996)

patients with prefrontal lesions show overt imitative behavior

Neuropsychological findings


The imitation inhibition task

incongruent representations?

congruent

baseline

The imitation-inhibition task

Brass et al. (2000)


The imitation inhibition task1
The imitation-inhibition task representations?

Lift the index finger when a `1` appears

and the middle finger when a `2` appears.

+

+

Brass et al. (2000)


Results

con representations?

base

incon

Results

Brass et al. (2000)


Patients
Patients representations?

  • 16 patients with frontal lesions of different etiology and lesion site

  • 14 patients with posterior lesions (temporal, parietal)

  • 16 age-matched controls


Results1

Imitation-inhibition task representations?

*

*

posterior

control

frontal

Results

interference score: incongruent errors (%) – congruent errors (%)

Brass et al. (2003)


Conclusions
Conclusions representations?

  • Patients with frontal lesions have problems to inhibit imitative response tendencies.


Functional mechanisms involved in the inhibition of imitative behavior
Functional mechanisms involved in the inhibition of imitative behavior

  • Hypothesis

    • The inhibition of imitative behavior involves general inhibitory mechanisms.

    • The inhibition of imitative behavior involves specific mechanisms related to the distinction of self-generated and externally triggered motor representations.


Experiment a l design

ten healthy right handed imitative behaviorparticipants

the imitation-inhibition task

functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

Experimental design


I mitation inhibition task

1 imitative behavior

2

1

2

anterior fronto-median cortex (aFMC)

temporo-parietal junction area (TPJ)

Imitation-inhibition task

Incongruent vs. congruent

Brass, Derrfuss & von Cramon(2005)


The functional role of the anterior fronto median cortex and the tpj
The functional role of the anterior fronto-median cortex and the TPJ

  • sense of agency (e.g. Farrer et al., 2003)

  • perspective taking (Ruby & Decety, 2001, 2003)

  • out of body experience (Blanke et al., 2002)


Conclusions1
Conclusions the TPJ

  • The inhibition of imitative behaviour seems to involve mechanisms related to self-other distinction.


The mirroring of contextual information

Are environmental constraints mapped onto the observer’s motor representation?

The mirroring of contextual information



Paradigm
Paradigm restrain the observer.

non-corresponding restraint

corresponding restraint

no restraint


Demonstration
Demonstration restrain the observer.


Results2
Results restrain the observer.


Alternative hypothesis

The slowing effect is due to higher perceptual difficulty in the corresponding restraint condition.

Alternative hypothesis


Test the corresponding restraint condition.

Stimuli

no restraint

corresponding restraint

Responses

if a ‘1‘ appears

if a ‘2‘ appears


Results3
Results the corresponding restraint condition.


Summary

There is an automatic tendency to imitate observed behaviour.

Prefrontal patients have problems to inhibit imitative response tendencies.

The inhibition of imitative behaviour involves functional mechanisms related to self-other distinction.

Not only the action itself is mapped onto the observer’s motor representation but also environmental constraints.

Summary


Roman Liepelt behaviour.Stephanie SpenglerMichael SteinbornHarold BekkeringJan DerrfussWolfgang PrinzD. Yves von Cramon


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