1 / 15

# Chapter 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Chapter 2. Describing Motion—kinematics in 1-D. Describing Motion. Mechanics —study of the motion of objects Kinematics —study of how objects move Dynamics —study of force and why objects move. Describing Motion. Translational motion moving without rotating (spinning)

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chapter 2' - britanni-lowe

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

### Chapter 2

Describing Motion—kinematics in 1-D

• Mechanics—study of the motion of objects

• Kinematics—study of how objects move

• Dynamics—study of force and why objects move

• Translational motion

• moving without rotating (spinning)

• Frame of Reference

• portion of the universe to where all measurements are referred (point of view)

• Distance (d)—a measure of length traveled

• Scalar—Magnitude only (20 m)

• Displacement(x)—change in position

• Vector—Magnitude (20 m) and a direction (North)

• Displacement

• In 1-Dimension, direction can be defined as + or –

• x = x2 – x1 = (final position) – (initial position)

• independent of path taken

• Speed—How far an object moves in a given time

• Average speed = (distance traveled)/(time elapsed)

• Scalar

• units of meters per second (m/s)

• Velocity—how much position changes in a given time

• Average velocity = displacement/(time elapsed)

• v = x/t

• vector

• Instantaneous velocity—velocity at one instant in time

• Average velocity over an infinitesimally small time interval

• Mathematically, the limit as t  0

• Instantaneous speed is the same magnitude as instantaneous velocity

• Acceleration (a)—change of velocity over a given time

• a = v/t

• Vector

• units of meters per second per second(m/s2)

• instantaneous acceleration, limit as t  0

• Variables

• x0—initial position

• x—final position

• v0—initial velocity

• v—final velocity

• t—time (t0 usually = 0)

• a—acceleration

• Principal Kinematic Equations

• v = v0 + at

• Useful when no position given

• x = x0 + v0t + ½ at2

• Useful when no final velocity given

• v2 = v02 + 2a(x – x0)

• Useful when no time given

• Falling objects (y-axis movement)

• Position can be y and y0 instead of x and x0

• In a vacuum (no air resistance) all objects fall at the same rate due to gravity

• ag = -9.80 m/s2 (acceleration of gravity)

• Position vs. time graphs

• Horizontal line

• Slanted straight line

• Curved line

• Velocity vs. Time graphs

• Horizontal line

• Slanted straight line

• Curved line