Does birth spacing affect adolescent cognitive ability among siblings in dyads
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Does Birth Spacing Affect Adolescent Cognitive Ability Among Siblings in Dyads?. Author Author Date. Agenda. Introduction Hypothesis Significance Definitions Pathway Methods Results Conclusion Q&A. Hypothesis.

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Agenda
Agenda Siblings in Dyads?

  • Introduction

    • Hypothesis

    • Significance

    • Definitions

    • Pathway

  • Methods

  • Results

  • Conclusion

  • Q&A


Hypothesis
Hypothesis Siblings in Dyads?

  • Among the population of adolescents in the study, younger siblings of dyad pairs born further apart from their older siblings will have higher cognitive scores than those born closer to their older siblings.

  • That is, you’ll be smarter if your parents have you and your sibling further in time apart.


Significance
Significance Siblings in Dyads?

  • How much time should you plan to set aside to have smart kids?

  • What makes you smarter than your younger sibling?


Definitions
Definitions Siblings in Dyads?

  • Birth spacing

    # months between sibling birth dates

  • Cognitive Ability

    • Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test


Pathway
Pathway Siblings in Dyads?

  • More attention for child

  • Different interaction between siblings

  • More resources for care


Literature review summary
Literature Review Summary Siblings in Dyads?

  • Mostly infant and early childhood samples

  • Contradicting results

    • Yes, there is an association1,2,4,5,7,8, 11

    • No, there is no association3,5, 6, 9, 10, 11

  • Weak controls in adolescent studies


Our value added
Our Value Added Siblings in Dyads?

  • Study of adolescents

  • Stronger control for SES, gender, birth order, family size

  • Different cognitive measure


Agenda1
Agenda Siblings in Dyads?

  • Introduction

  • Methods

    • Study design

    • Exposure & Outcome variables

    • Covariates

    • Models & Interaction

  • Results

  • Conclusion

  • Q&A


Methods study design
Methods: Study Design Siblings in Dyads?

  • Child Health and Development Study

    • Prospective, longitudinal

    • Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, Oakland, California

    • Women and their children born 1959 – 1967

    • Adolescent Study (born between 1960 – 1963)


Does birth spacing affect adolescent cognitive development figure 1
Does Birth Spacing Affect Adolescent Cognitive Development? Figure 1.

*also excludes 9 records with inconsistent family size between PREPROD and ADOL


Methods exposure
Methods: Exposure Figure 1.

  • Birth space interval = birthday of younger sibling – birthday of older sibling

  • 3 versions of exposure:

    • Categorical exposure

    • Continuous exposure

    • Dual exposure (categorical and continuous)


Methods exposure1
Methods: Exposure Figure 1.

  • Version 1: Categorical (5)

    • Second-born

      • ≤2 years

      • 2.1-3 years

      • 3.1-4 years

      • >4 years

    • First-born

  • Version 2: Continuous (months)


Methods exposure2
Methods: Exposure Figure 1.

  • Version 3: Dual

    • Categorical

      • First-born

      • Second-born

    • Continuous (months)


Methods outcome
Methods: Outcome Figure 1.

  • Continuous Peabody score (points)

  • In general:

    • SD = 15

    • Range = 0 to 160

  • In sample:

    • Range = 71 to 156

    • Mean = 117.9

    • SD = 14.3




Methods covariates2
Methods: Covariates Figure 1.

Significance at p < 0.2


Methods covariates3
Methods: Covariates Figure 1.

Significance at p < 0.2


Methods full model covariates
Methods: Full Model Covariates Figure 1.

Significance: >10% change in coefficient of at least 1 exposure category


Methods restricted model covariates
Methods: Restricted Model Covariates Figure 1.

Significance at > 10% change in coefficient of at least 2 exposure categories



Methods quadratic model testing
Methods: Quadratic Model Testing Figure 1.

Tiny magnitude

  • Continuous birth spacing variable

  • B = 0.001 , p = 0.13

Pretty linear


Methods interaction
Methods: Interaction Figure 1.

Continuous exposure model

  • Significance set at p < 0.2:

    • Birth spacing /race

    • Birth spacing /child sex

      Revised model

  • Significance set at p < 0.2:

    • Birth spacing /child sex

    • Race /child sex

    • Birth spacing / child sex / race


Agenda2
Agenda Figure 1.

  • Introduction

  • Methods

  • Results

    • Categorical Model

    • Continuous Model

    • Dual Model

    • Interaction

  • Conclusion

  • Q&A






Results interaction1
Results: Interaction Figure 1.

** holding other covariates constant




Agenda3
Agenda Figure 1.

  • Introduction

  • Methods

  • Results

  • Conclusion

    • Summary

    • Limitations & Strengths

    • Future Directions

  • Q&A


Summary
Summary Figure 1.

  • Slight inverse relationship between birth spacing and Peabody score

  • Negligible difference in Peabody score

  • Interaction from gender and race


Limitations
Limitations Figure 1.

  • Small sample size

  • Limited information on first-born siblings

    • No PREPROD record

  • Unable to compare scores within dyad

  • Operationalizing cognitive ability


Strengths
Strengths Figure 1.

  • Statistical rigor

    • Limiting confounders

    • Extensive covariates list

    • Interactions


Future directions
Future Directions Figure 1.

  • Bigger sample size

  • Designs that can account for what we could not

    • Different family sizes

    • Intra-family differences in Peabody score

    • Missing covariates

  • Exploring variables underlying interactions


Agenda4
Agenda Figure 1.

  • Introduction

  • Methods

  • Results

  • Conclusion

  • Q&A

    • Thank you!


References
References Figure 1.

  • Breland HM. Birth order, family configuration, and verbal achievement, Child Development. 1974;43:1011–1019.

  • Dandes HM and Dow D. Relation of intelligence to family size and density, Child Development. 1969;40: 641–645. 

  • Gibbs ED, Teti DM, Bond LA. Infant-Sibling Communication Relationships to Birth-Spacing and Cognitive and Linguistic Development. Infant Behavior and Development. 1987;10(3):307-324.

  • Kamin KD, Kubinger, Schubert MR. Sibling constellation and intelligence in behavior disordered children, Zeitschrift fur klinischePsychologieforschung und Praxis. 1981;10:98– 109.

  • Lancer I, Rim Y. Intelligence Family Size and Sibling Age Spacing. Personality and Individual Differences. 1984;5(2):151-158.

  • Lewis M, Jaskir J. Infant Intelligence and its Relation to Birth Order and Birth Spacing. Infant Behavior and Development. 1983;6(1):117-120.

  • Nuttall EV and Nuttall RL. Child spacing effects on intelligence, personality, and social competence, Journal of Psychology . 1979;102:3–12.


References1
References Figure 1.

  • Record RG, McKeown T, Edwards HH. An investigation of the difference in measured intelligence between twins and single births, Annals of Human Genetics. 1970;84:11–20.

  • Rodgers JL, Rowe DC. Does Contiguity Breed Similarity? A Within-Family Analysis of Nonshared Sources of IQ Differences between Siblings. Dev Psychol. 1985;21(5):743- 746.

  • Teti DM, Bond LA, Gibbs ED. Sibling-Created Experiences Relationships to Birth-Spacing and Infant Cognitive Development. Infant Behavior and Development. 1986;9(1):27-42.

  • Wagner ME, Schubert HJP, Schubert DSP. Effects of Sibling Spacing on Intelligence Interfamilial Relations Psychosocial Characteristics and Mental and Physical Health. Reese, H.W.(Ed.). Advances in Child Development and Behavior, Vol.19.X+260p.Academic Press Inc., Publishers: Orlando, Fla., Usa; Academic Press Inc.(London) Ltd.: London, England. Illus. 1985:149-206.


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