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Functional Groups 5-8. 5) Carboxylic Acids. General Formula: O ll R – C – OH (carboxyl group). Properties & Uses. Weak acids Found in edible substances i.e. Citric acid, aspirin; builds up in muscles: lactic acid. Naming Rules.

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5 carboxylic acids
5) Carboxylic Acids

General Formula:O

ll

R – C – OH

(carboxyl group)

properties uses
Properties & Uses
  • Weak acids
  • Found in edible substances i.e. Citric acid, aspirin; builds up in muscles: lactic acid
naming rules
Naming Rules
  • -oic acid ending on parent chain
  • Functional grp gets lowest # in parent chain
  • Substituents named as always
examples
Examples

i.e. 5 – ehtylheptanoic acid

Draw:

Name:

slide6

Note: If this functional grp is drawn on the far left carbon, the OH is turned around and written as HO to show that the bond is between the C – O

6 esters
6) Esters

General Formula:

O

ll

R – C – O – R\'

properties uses1
Properties & Uses
  • Pleasant smells
  • Aromas in fruits
naming rules1
Naming Rules

O

ll

R – C – O – R\'

  • oate ending, named last -yl ending, named 1st
  • ***There is a space btn the names***
examples1
Examples

Draw butyl propanoate

Name the following:

O

ll

CH3 – C – O – CH3

7 amines
7) Amines

General Formula:

R – N – H

l

H

  • *Hs can be C chains
  • 3 types: 1o, 2o, 3o
properties uses2
Properties & Uses
  • Bad odours (fishy), weak bases
  • P69 for examples
naming rules2
Naming Rules
  • Amino prefixes the parent chain name
  • # in front of amino to indicate the location of the N on the parent chain
  • If there are C chains on the N, the letter N is placed in front of the substituent name (see examples below)
examples2
Examples

Draw the following:

  • 2 – aminobutane
  • N – methyl – 3 – pentane
  • N – ethyl – N,3 – dimethyl-2-aminobutane
8 amides
8) Amides
  • General Formula:

O

ll

R – C – N – H

l

H

*Hs can be replaced by C chains

properties uses3
Properties & Uses
  • Backbone for larger organic molecules like DNA and proteins
naming rules3
Naming Rules
  • Parent chain gets amide ending
  • C-chains on N are named the same as in amines
examples3
Examples

Draw N- methylpentanamide

Name:

O

ll

CH3 – CH2 – C – N – CH3

l

CH2 – CH3

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