Functional groups 5 8
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Functional Groups 5-8. 5) Carboxylic Acids. General Formula: O ll R – C – OH (carboxyl group). Properties & Uses. Weak acids Found in edible substances i.e. Citric acid, aspirin; builds up in muscles: lactic acid. Naming Rules.

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Functional Groups 5-8

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Functional Groups 5-8


5) Carboxylic Acids

General Formula:O

ll

R – C – OH

(carboxyl group)


Properties & Uses

  • Weak acids

  • Found in edible substances i.e. Citric acid, aspirin; builds up in muscles: lactic acid


Naming Rules

  • -oic acid ending on parent chain

  • Functional grp gets lowest # in parent chain

  • Substituents named as always


Examples

i.e. 5 – ehtylheptanoic acid

Draw:

Name:


Note: If this functional grp is drawn on the far left carbon, the OH is turned around and written as HO to show that the bond is between the C – O


6) Esters

General Formula:

O

ll

R – C – O – R'


Properties & Uses

  • Pleasant smells

  • Aromas in fruits


Naming Rules

O

ll

R – C – O – R'

  • oate ending, named last -yl ending, named 1st

  • ***There is a space btn the names***


Examples

Draw butyl propanoate

Name the following:

O

ll

CH3 – C – O – CH3


7) Amines

General Formula:

R – N – H

l

H

  • *Hs can be C chains

  • 3 types: 1o, 2o, 3o


Properties & Uses

  • Bad odours (fishy), weak bases

  • P69 for examples


Naming Rules

  • Amino prefixes the parent chain name

  • # in front of amino to indicate the location of the N on the parent chain

  • If there are C chains on the N, the letter N is placed in front of the substituent name (see examples below)


Examples

Draw the following:

  • 2 – aminobutane

  • N – methyl – 3 – pentane

  • N – ethyl – N,3 – dimethyl-2-aminobutane


8) Amides

  • General Formula:

    O

    ll

    R – C – N – H

    l

    H

    *Hs can be replaced by C chains


Properties & Uses

  • Backbone for larger organic molecules like DNA and proteins


Naming Rules

  • Parent chain gets amide ending

  • C-chains on N are named the same as in amines


Examples

Draw N- methylpentanamide

Name:

O

ll

CH3 – CH2 – C – N – CH3

l

CH2 – CH3


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