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American Independence. Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson. “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal ” = all humans should have same rights & opportunities

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declaration of independence by thomas jefferson
Declaration of Independence by Thomas Jefferson
  • “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal” = all humans should have same rights& opportunities
  • “they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights” = God gave all people permanent rights
  • “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” = John Locke’s natural rights: to live, be free & to seek a fulfilling life
key points of dec of independence
Key points of Dec of Independence
  • “to secure these rights, Governments are instituted” = governments were created to protect people’s rights
  • “deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed” = people give govt. permission to have powersto govern
key points of dec of independence1
Key points of Dec of Independence
  • “Whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it” = people have right to overthrow a government that abuses power
  • “and to institute new Government.” = people are to replace it w. a government that DOES protect their rights.
colonial government
Colonial Government
  • Parliament governed American colonies,
    • but in practice colonists had their own colonial legislatures
  • Caucasian, land-owning males elected their representatives to the legislatures.
france vs britain cause of independence
FRANCE VS BRITAIN :Cause of Independence
  • French North America = Canada & Louisiana Territory, vast trading area, sparsely populated
  • England’s 13 colonies = densely populated. British colonists wanted to settle west, but French forts prevented.
seven years war french and indian war
Seven Years War/French and Indian War)
  • Britain & France fought control N. American continent.
  • Britain’s P M William Pitt used British navy to defeat weaker French fleet.
  • British forces defeated French near Quebec, Canada.
  • 1763 Treaty of Paris granted Canada & French land east of the Mississippi to Britain.
  • British Empire was largest in world but in Debt
  • (Tax the Colonist)
british taxes
British Taxes
  • Parliament imposed 1765 Stamp Act on colonies (repealed a year later due to protest.)
  • Parliament placed tariffs on non-British made goods,
    • American smuggling & British searches of American homes w/o warrants.
  • Declaratory Act = Parliament stated that Parliament alone had right to tax and make decisions for colonies.
    • undermined colonial govt’s authority, colonists outraged, “No taxation without representation!”
colonist react to taxes
Colonist React to Taxes
  • Boston Massacre resulted in 5 deaths, but huge anti-British propaganda campaign (Paul Revere.)
  • 1773 Tea Act gave British East India Co. a monopoly on tea market and decreased colonist profits.
  • Thomas Jefferson encouraged communication amongst colonies
  • Boston Tea Party = Samuel Adams & other patriots dressed as Indians, boarded ship & dumped British tea.
kings reaction
Kings reaction
  • King George III ordered Parliament to pass Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) to punish MA. & end colonial rebellion
    • No trial by jury, forcing people to “quarter” British troops, etc.)
1774 first continental congress in philadelphia
1774 First Continental Congress in Philadelphia
  • “I am not a Virginian, but an American” Patrick Henry

Congress called :

  • repeal Intolerable Acts
  • boycott of British goods
  • form colonial militias,
  • sent a Declaration of Rights & Grievances to king,
  • but still claimed loyalty to the “Crown.”
colonist fight british
Colonist Fight British
  • April, 1775 British troops sent to seize arms & supplies of militias.
  • Lexington & Concord, first time fighting broke out between British & American forces, “the shot heard round the world!”
may 1775 second continental congress
May, 1775 Second Continental Congress
  • Gen. George Washington organize Continental Army
    • Olive Branch Petition. Of peace King refused. Sent 30,000 German troops instead!
  • Jan, 1776 Thomas Paine’s pamphlet “Common Sense” widely circulated = demanded American independence
  • July 4, 1776 Declaration of Independence proclaimed & colonies celebrated. American Revolution had begun.
  • Big gamble: signers signed their own death warrant! Patriots vs. world’s best military force & richest nation.
patriot advantages
Patriot advantages
  • fighting on home turf, fighting for freedom
  • Early success of guerilla tactics
  • support from France (Lafayette) & Spain
    • Help Colonist because enemy was Britain
  • Both sides thought war would be short, but itlasted 7 years!
saratoga october 1777
Saratoga October 1777
  • British made two attempts to break through American defenses, but failed.
  • British withdrew to Saratoga, where they were surrounded by American troops.
  • The British had to surrender on October 13, 1777.
  • One quarter of the British forces in North America thus surrendered,
  • Major turning point and victory for Colonist
valley forge winter 1777 1778
Valley Forge-winter 1777-1778
  • British Army secure in Philadelphia
  • The American army settled into winter quarters at Valley Forge.
  • winter of hardship and suffering for the troops.
  • It was also a winter of training, in which the American troops were taught how to be professional soldiers.
york town may 1781
York Town May 1781
  • General Cornwallis and British forces began preparing a naval base in York Town
  • General Washington moved south and, together with French ground and naval forces, surrounded the British army
  • Assault forced British to surrender
  • This victory ended the war and guaranteed independence
americans gain independence
Americans gain independence
  • Gen. Cornwallis surrendered to Americans & French at Yorktown in 1781.
  • 1783 Treaty of Paris recognized U.S. independence & expansion west to the Mississippi (doubled in size!)