Media Influence. Does the Media have power? How Much? What form does this power take?. Acknowledgements.
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Does the Media have power?
What form does this power take?
The vast majority of the content of this presentation is from notes taken at a lecture given by John Schwartz at an ATOM Media Influence PD in 2005. John is a Senior Lecturer at Swinburne University of Technology and can be contacted by email: firstname.lastname@example.orgI thank John for generously allowing the reproduction of his work in this presentation for use in my VCE Media class.
What effect does it have?
(All these people exposed to the same message)
Why is the media product created?
Do you believe it has an influence?
How do you support your point of view?
You will need to complete the “Theory Worksheet” for each of the 5 theories we will discuss today as you listen to this presentation. They will be organised under the following headings:
Nature of Media Influence
Extent of Media Influence
How is the audience affected by the media? By what method?
How much is the audience affected by the media? To a large or small degree?
Audience accepts what is presented without question. They are susceptible to manipulation.
Audience interprets the media based on a number of factors including their own culture, experience, likes and dislikes, etc. They have power over how they are effected by the media they consume.
A message is present in the text. The text can only be understood in the way it was intended to be read.
The text can be read in multiple ways. Its reading depends not only on those who created the text but also on those who read and interpret the text.
Meaning exists in a text and is waiting to be uncovered
Sender => Message => Receiver
Meaning arises from the interaction of a text with a reader
War I in a massive recruiting drive
Everyone will get the message. Like being shot with a bullet or injected with a needle.
Linear Model (Sender => Message => Receiver)
Media is very powerful, has a lot of influence
Audience is passive
Text is closed - no room for interpretation
Frankfurt school (Germany) developed this theory after observing Nazi Propaganda pre-WWII
This poster from the 1930's, promotes the Nazi monthly “New People” from the party's racial office. The text reads: "This genetically ill person will cost our people's community 60,000 marks over his lifetime. Citizens, that is your money. Read Neues Volk, the monthly of the racial policy office of the NSDAP."
The caption: "The Jew: The inciter of war, the prolonger of war." This poster was released in late 1943 or early 1944. Courtesy of Dr. Robert D. Brooks.
The text of this 1940 poster reads: "Youth Serves the Fuhrer. All 10-year-olds into the Hitler Youth." Membership in the Hitler Youth had become mandatory in 1936.
Text and images from:
RITUALISTIC => RELAXATION, ENTERTAINMENT
INSTRUMENTAL => GOAL-ORIENTED
Uses and Gratification theory is concerned with why audiences consume the media products they choose. These needs include:
So the media is the 7th influence (not a strong one)
What are these types of regulation?
Who is in charge of the policing of each?
What consequences exist for a breach of these different types of regulation?
Classification decisions are to give effect, as far as possible, to the following principles:
(a) adults should be able to read, hear and see what they want;
(b) minors should be protected from material likely to harm or disturb them;
(c) everyone should be protected from exposure to unsolicited material that they find offensive;
(d) the need to take account of community concerns about:
(i) depictions that condone or incite violence, particularly sexual violence; and
(ii) the portrayal of persons in a demeaning manner.
The content of free-to-air commercial television is regulated under the Commercial Television Industry Code of Practice which has been developed by Free TV Australia and registered with the Australian Communications and Media Authority. It is responsible for:
• program classifications;
• accuracy, fairness and respect for privacy in news and current affairs;
• advertising time on television; and
• placement of commercials and program promotions and complaints handling.