Biochemistry
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Biochemistry. Chapter 4 Functional Groups. Carbon—The Backbone of Biological Molecules All living organisms are made up of chemicals based mostly on carbon due to its bonding ability. Chapter 4. Organic chemistry the study of carbon compounds

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Biochemistry

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry

Chapter 4

Functional Groups


Biochemistry

Carbon—The Backbone of Biological Molecules

  • All living organisms are made up of chemicals based mostly on carbon due to its bonding ability


Chapter 4

Chapter 4

  • Organic chemistry

    • the study of carbon compounds

  • Organic compoundshave carbon in them (& usually H)

    • Exception: CO2 is considered INORGANIC

    • Range from simple (ie. methane, CH4) to complex molecules (ie. proteins)


Stanley miller s experiment

Stanley Miller’s Experiment

  • Gave support against the concept ofvitalism

    • idea that organic compounds arise only within living organisms

      • disproved when chemists (such as Miller) synthesized carbon compounds in lab

    • Thoughts shifted from vitalism to mechanism

      • the view that all natural phenomena are governed by physical and chemical laws.


Biochemistry

Stanley Miller’s Experiment

Gases

CH4, NH3, H2O, H2

(thought to be found in the primitive atmosphere)

Simulated lightning


Formation of bonds w carbon

Formation of Bonds w/ Carbon

  • Carbon atoms

    • have 4valence electrons which can bond to 4 other atoms, forming diverse molecules

      • Carbon has bonding versatility

        • It can bond with four other atoms to form diverse molecules, including with hydrogen to form hydrocarbon chains

    • can form 4 covalent bonds with itself or other atoms  very important in living things!


Biochemistry

Hydrogen

(valence = 1)

Oxygen

(valence = 2))

Nitrogen

(valence = 3)

Carbon

(valence = 4))

H

O

N

C

Figure 4.4

  • The electron configuration of carbon gives it covalent compatibilitywith many different elements

    • Carbon often bonds covalently to the following molecules, forming an organic molecule:

(Valence= # of covalent bonds an atom can form)


Molecular diversity arising from carbon skeleton variation

Molecular Diversity Arising from Carbon Skeleton Variation

  • Carbon chains

    • Form the skeletons of most organic molecules

    • Vary in length and shape

      • Straight

      • Branched

      • Rings


Hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons

  • Organic molecules consisting of only C and H

    • Ex: petroleum

  • Found in many of a cell’s organic molecules

    • Ex: phospholipid molecules in cell membranes

  • The covalent bonding btwn C-H is nonpolar (hydrophobic) fats and petroleum will not dissolve in water

  • High energy storage  release a lot of energy when broken down


Example of a hydrocarbon

Fat droplets (stained red)

100 µm

(b) Mammalian adipose cells

(a) A fat molecule

Figure 4.6 A, B

Example of a Hydrocarbon


Isomers

ISOMERS

Isomers

  • Compounds with the same molecular formula, but different structure & properties

    • Have same # of atoms arranged differently

      3 types of isomers

  • structural~ differ in covalent arrangements of their atoms

    Both of the above molecules are pentane (C5H12)


  • Biochemistry

    2. geometric~ differ in spatial arrangement

    • Arise from inflexibility of double C bond

    • cis (“X’s” same side of double C bond) vs. trans (“X’s” opposite sides of doube C bond)

    • X’s represents an atom or group of atoms

    Cis vs. trans


    Biochemistry

    • 3. enantiomers~ mirror images of each other

      • used in pharmacological industry

      • The “asymmetrical carbon” is the middle carbon attached to four different atoms or groups of atoms

    1 usually active; other inactive

    Asymmetrical Carbon


    Biochemistry

    L-Dopa

    (effective against Parkinson’s disease)

    D-Dopa

    (biologically inactive)

    Figure 4.8


    Functional groups

    Functional Groups

    • Functional groups

      • parts of organic molecules involved in chemical rxns (chemically reactive groups)

      • replace a hydrogen bonded to a hydrocarbon

      • A given functional group will behave the same way regardless of which organic molecule it is bonded to. (display consistent behavior)


    Biochemistry

    • # & arrangement of functional groups helps give organic molecules unique, distinctive chemical properties

    • Each GROUP is HYDROPHILIC  increases organic molecule’s solubility in water


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