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Table of Contents. Writing Required on Assessments………………………………………………...….1 When should we use the 4  writing method?………………………………….…….2 4  and the MAP..………………………………………………………...…………..2 4  + D Model (for constructed response/paragraph writing)………………………..3

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Table of contents

Table of Contents

Writing Required on Assessments………………………………………………...….1

When should we use the 4 writing method?………………………………….…….2

4 and the MAP..………………………………………………………...…………..2

4 + D Model (for constructed response/paragraph writing)………………………..3

Example……………………………………………...………………………...4

Blank copy for your classroom…………………………………………...……5

4 + D + T + V Model (for performance events/5-paragraph essays)………..……..6

Using Transitions and Vivid Language ………………………………………7

Example………………………………………………………………………..8

Blank copy for your classroom……………………………………………..….9

4 for Different Types of Writing in the Content Areas…………………...…...….10

Different Types of Writing in the Content Areas………………………………...….11

Assignments to Practice Writing in Your Classroom……………………………….12

Applying the 4 method to Mathematics………………………………....………..13

More 4 Square Examples……………….…………………………………………14

References …………………………………………………………………………..15


Writing required on assessments

Writing Required on Assessments

Writing on command means you are given the format (___________). The writer mustfollow an expected ______________ since the person scoring the writing expects to find certain things within the writing structure.

The most common types of writing prompts on standardized tests are:

  • ________________: inform, tell steps, explain, examples, reasons

  • ________________: fictional or personal story

  • ________________: convince with evidence

  • ________________: use vivid detail to “paint a picture” in the reader’s head

    Students need to understand the ______________ used in the writing prompts to ensure that they answer the questions correctly. Spend time teaching this list of key words and use them on your classroom assessments to help your students feel comfortable with them.

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When Should We Use the 4 Writing Method?

________________ ___________ items and _______________ writing in all subject areas (abbreviated version.)

_______________ ________ and ___-paragraph essay writing in all subject areas (full version).

How Does 4Writing Assist Students in Achieving “Academic Proficiency” on the MAP?

Achievement Level Descriptors, 11th Grade Communication Arts

Step 1 Students

  • address a topic

  • write with some evidence of purpose

  • respond in generalities

  • demonstrate a limited vocabulary

  • demonstrate minimal knowledge of sentence structure and Standard English (rules of grammar, usage, punctuation, spelling, and capitalization)

    Progressing Students

  • address an intended purpose or audience

  • support main ideas with generalities only

  • demonstrate some organizational techniques

  • demonstrate beginning use of sentence structure and Standard English

    Nearing Proficiency Students

  • address a variety of purposes and audiences

  • demonstrate organization with evidence of a main idea and general supporting details

  • identify and apply rules of sentence structure and Standard English

    Proficient Students

  • use clear organization

  • use relevant details, examples, and reasons as supporting evidence for developing main ideas

  • use transitional devices and precise language

  • attempt to show individual style and voice

  • demonstrate control of sentence structure and Standard English

    Advanced Students

  • use vivid details to support a well-developed main idea

  • use advanced stylistic techniques

  • demonstrate a command of sentence structure and Standard English

The Four Square writing method explicitly teaches students to plan and organize their writing around a __________ ______. Students learn to use ___________ words between paragraphs. Also, they practice using __________ & ________ details in their writing.

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4 + D

Abbreviated Version for Constructed Response Items/Paragraph Writing

What goes in each of the squares for a constructed response item?

  • ___________ Detail #___:

  • ______________ Detail:

    • ______________________

  • ___________ Detail #___:

  • ______________ Detail:

    • ______________________

_________ ______:

_____________ ____________:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • ___________ Detail #___:

  • ______________ Detail:

    • ______________________

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Example

Constructed

Response

4 + D

Prompt: Why was Ancient Rome important?

  • Major Detail: Government

  • Supporting Detail:

    • Republic = elected officials represent the people

  • Major Detail:ReligionSupporting Detail:

    • many gods & goddesses; Jupiter, Mercury

Central Idea:Ancient Rome was important to the world for many reasons.

  • Major Detail:Entertainment

  • Supporting Detail:

    • gladiator competition, chariot races

  • Summary Statement

    • Ancient Rome impacted the world because of its government, religion, and forms of entertainment.

Constructed Response Answer:

Ancient Rome was important to the world for many reasons. Rome created the first republic, where elected officials represented the people. Their religion revolved around worshiping many gods and goddesses, such as Jupiter and Mercury. For entertainment, Romans enjoyed gladiator competitions and chariot races. Ancient Rome impacted the world because of its government, religion, and forms of entertainment.

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4 + D

  • ___________________________

  • __________________________

  • ___________________________

  • __________________________

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • ___________________________

  • __________________________

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4 + D + T + V

Full Version for Performance Events/5-Paragraph Essays

  • ___________ Words:

  • ___________ Detail # ____:

  • ____________________ Details:

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

  • ___________ Words:

  • ___________ Detail # ____:

  • ____________________ Details:

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

_________________ __________:

___________ Words:

______________ _____________:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • ___________ Words:

  • ___________ Detail # ____:

  • ____________________ Details:

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

* = _________________and/or ____________ language

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Using Transitions and Vivid Language

In a performance event or essay, it is important to use complex sentences with ______________ _________________ within and between paragraphs. Students need to practice using transitions. Below are lists of transition words that can be used in each square of the Four Square model.

Second

Another reason

Another example

Also

As well as

Too

In addition

Additionally

One reason

First

For example

One example

To begin

To start

Third

Another reason

Another example

Also

As well as

Too

In addition

Additionally

Finally

In short

As one can see

So you can see

Hence

Therefore

  • Another requirement in good writing is the use of precise and vivid language. Too often, our students are __________ and do not describe the contents of their answers well enough for a grader to accurately determine their meaning.

    • ______________ language includes using nouns instead of pronouns, and specific examples instead of generalities.

    • ______________ language uses words that give the reader a clear mental image of what the writer is describing.

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Example

Expository

Essay

4 + D + T + V

Prompt: Explain how the water cycle works.

  • Transition words: Next

  • Major idea: Condensation & Precipitation

  • Supporting details:

  • water vapor in air gets cold & changes back into liquid (forming clouds)*

  • so much water has condensed--air cannot hold it anymore

  • clouds get heavy & water falls back to the earth (rain, hail, sleet, or snow)*

  • Transition words: First

  • Major idea: Evaporation & Transpiration

  • Supporting details:

  • sun heats up water in rivers/lakes/ocean & turns it into vapor or steam

  • transpiration-plants lose water out of their leaves (like sweating)*

  • vapor or steam leaves the river, lake or ocean & goes into the air

Central Idea: The water cycle is a complex process.

  • Transition words: The last step

  • Major idea: Collection

  • Supporting details:

  • water falls back to earth in oceans, lakes, rivers, or ends up on land

  • on land, soaks into the earth (“ground water” that plants & animals drink )*

  • on land, runs over the soil & collects in the oceans, lakes, rivers (cycle starts all over again)

Transition words: As one can see

Summary statement:

The water cycle is a complex process. It includes evaporation and transpiration, condensation and precipitation, and collection.

ESSAY:

The earth has a limited amount of water. That water keeps going around and around in what we call the "Water Cycle.” The water cycle is a complex process that includes evaporation and transpiration, condensation and precipitation, and collection. It is very interesting to study.

First, evaporation and transpiration take place. Evaporation is when the sun heats up water in rivers or lakes or the ocean and turns it into vapor or steam. The water vapor or steam leaves the river, lake or ocean and goes into the air. Transpiration is the process by which plants lose water out of their leaves. Transpiration gives evaporation a bit of a hand in getting the water vapor back up into the air.

Next, condensation and precipitation occur. Water vapor in the air gets cold and changes back into liquid, forming clouds. This is called condensation. Precipitation occurs when so much water has condensed that the air cannot hold it anymore. The clouds get heavy and water falls back to the earth in the form of rain, hail, sleet or snow.

The last step in the cycle is collection. When water falls back to earth as precipitation, it may fall back in the oceans, lakes or rivers or it may end up on land. When it ends up on land, it will either soak into the earth and become part of the “ground water” that plants and animals use to drink or it may run over the soil and collect in the oceans, lakes or rivers where the cycle starts all over again.

As one can see, the water cycle is a complex process. It includes evaporation and transpiration, condensation and precipitation, and collection. Because of this process, we will always have water for survival.

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4 + D + T + V

  • _________________

  • __________________________

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

  • _________________

  • __________________________

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

_________________

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  • _________________

  • __________________________

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

  • ___________________________

    • ______________________*

* = precise and/or vivid language

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4 for Different Types of Writing in the Content Areas

Expository (Explanation)

Narrative

Reason 1

Reason 2

Before event

During event

  • ___________

  • ________________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • ___________

  • ________________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • ___________

  • ________________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • ___________

  • ________________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • _______________

Item(s) to be explained.

5 Ws: Who, what, where, when, why?

Reason 3

After event

  • ___________

  • ________________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • ___________

  • ________________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • _______________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

Wrap-up

Wrap-up

Persuasive

Compare/Contrast

Advantage 1

Advantage 2

1 way they’re

same or different

2nd way they’re

same or different

  • ___________

  • ________________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • ___________

  • ________________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • ___________

  • ________________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • ___________

  • ________________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • _______________

Idea of which you want to convince the reader.

Two or more things to compare/contrast.

Advantage 3

3rd way they’re

same or different

  • ___________

  • ________________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • ___________

  • ________________

  • _______________

  • _______________

  • _______________

________________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________________

Wrap-up

Wrap-up

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Different Types of Writing in the Content Areas

Art:

Expository (explanation): Explain how to make a clay pot without using a potter’s wheel.

Narrative: Tell about a time when you were moved by a painting, sculpture, or other piece of art work.

Persuasive: Who is the best American artist? Convince the reader that your choice is the best.

Compare/Contrast: Compare and contrast impressionism and cubism.

Business:

Expository (explanation): Explain the steps to completing a balance sheet.

Narrative: After your job-shadowing experience, write a letter to the class describing your day “on the job.”

Persuasive: Convince your principal that your school needs a new computer lab.

Compare/Contrast: Compare and contrast the following programs: PowerPoint and Microsoft Word.

Family & Consumer Science:

Expository (explanation): Explain how to sew a zipper onto a pair of pants.

Narrative: Tell about the best meal you ever cooked. Why was it so great?

Persuasive: Persuade your family to go on a low-fat, high-fiber diet.

Compare/Contrast: Compare and contrast authoritative parenting and authoritarian parenting.

Math:

Expository (explanation): Explain how centimeters, milliliters, and grams are connected in the metric system of measurement.

Narrative: Tell about a time when you used the metric system to measure something.

Persuasive: English or metric? Take a stand on the system that should be used in the U.S. Write a letter urging your representative in congress to pass a law requiring your chosen system to be used.

Compare/Contrast: Compare and contrast the English and metric systems of measurement.

Music:

Expository (explanation): Explain how to sing a song in a “round” format.

Narrative: Tell about your best (or worst) singing or dancing experience ever. What happened to make it so good (bad)?

Persuasive: What kind of music is best? Persuade your principal to play your choice of music over the loudspeakers at lunchtime.

Compare/Contrast: Compare and contrast baroque and classical music.

Physical Education:

Expository (explanation): Explain how to play the game of basketball.

Narrative: Tell about the worst game of ______ that you ever played. What happened to make it so awful?

Persuasive: Your school is going to begin a new sports program. What is the best sport for your school to add and why?

Compare/Contrast: Compare and contrast tennis with racquetball.

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Assignments to Practice Writing in Your Classroom

One of the hard parts about getting students to write in our classes is grading boring, formal essays all the time. So, try other writing assignments that tax you less and give students the opportunity to display their knowledge of content material in a ______________ and __________________ way.

General Examples:

acceptance speechadvice columnbook review

brochurebulletin boardcampaign speech

cartooncharacter sketchchildren’s story

classified adcomic stripdiary entry

dictionary entrydirectionsdream analysis

editorialexperimentflyer

fortune cookie insertgraffitigreeting card

headlinejinglejournal entry

learning logletter of complaintletter to the editor

magazine articlememorandummemorial plaque

movie reviewnarrative poemnews story

nomination speechnursery rhymeobituary

one-act playparodypetition

political adpostcard to a friendpress release

radio playradio spotrap

riddleslogansong lyric

storyboardtall talethank-you note

tour guidetranslationtreaty

TV spotwant adwanted poster

Even though these are not traditional, formal writing assignments, be sure to emphasize the _________________ of the writing so that student writing is organized, uses details to support and develop ideas, is aimed at the appropriate audience, uses vivid and precise language, and uses transitions effectively.

Grading Tip: Use www.4teachers.org to get scoring guides for many different types of writing assignments.

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Applying the Four Square Method to Mathematics

Q Identify the Question that needs to be answered.

P What Process (math operation) must be used?

I Collect data need to solve the problem & put it in the Information box

C Write the number sentence needed to compute the answer for the problem; put it in the Compute box

S Place the answer, along with any other necessary information in the the Solution box

Process

Info

Question

Compute

Solution

Problem: Susan has 10 cousins and 12 friends. Today she baked 144 cookies. Since she was trying to lose weight, she did not eat any. Neither did she keep any for a midnight snack. She decided to give all the cookies away; she wanted each of her friends to have the same amount. How many cookies will each friend get?

Analyze & Solve, then………………….. Communicate the Process

I used the number 144 because Susan wants to give all the cookies away. I used the number 12 because she will give cookies to her friends, but not her cousins.

I will use division to solve the problem because you can use division to make equal parts.

P: 

I: 144, 12

Q

Susan wants to give the same amount of cookies to each friend.

S: 12 cookies each

C: 144 12 =___

Number sentence:

144  12 = ____.

Answer: 12

Susan can give each of her friends 12 cookies.

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More 4 Examples

Book Review

Math

Beginning

Middle

Process

Information

Title

Question

End

Did you like it?

Compute

Solution

Scientific Method

Music & Art Appreciation

Invent a tentative description, called a hypothesis, that is consistent with what you have observed.

Observe some aspect of the universe.

Orchestration/Light

Harmony/Focus

Phenomenon/Question

Name of work

Test those predictions by experiments or further observations & modify the hypothesis in light of your results.

Era____________

Composer/Artist _______________

Use the hypothesis to make predictions.

Form/Color

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References

References

Gould, Judith S. & Evan Jay. Four Square Writing

Method. Teaching & Learning Company: Carthage, IL.

1999.

Gould, Judith S. & Evan Jay. Four Square: The Total

Writing Classroom. Teaching & Learning Company:

Carthage, IL. 2002.

Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary

Education. www.dese.state.mo.us/divimprove/assess

Rose, Mary. Ten Easy Writing Lessons that Get Kids

Ready for Writing Assessments. Scholastic

Professional Books: New York. 1999.

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