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- From the earth’s lithosphere is sometimes
- Mud and Clay deposits that include red
- These sediments carpet the bottom of the
ocean near almost all the continents in
the area called the continental shelf
This glacier is approximately 88% below the surface! Glaciers cause the scrapping of materials from land
Erosion and Runoff from Landmasses
Dust storms and winds can bring dust plumes across and into the oceans (off Africa)
CALCAREOUS – shells made of calcium carbonate
SILICEOUS – shells made of silicon
dioxide (also includes the
Biogenic Oozes are composed of shells which are calcium carbonate based in many organisms . Each box is numbered with different organisms
These are Siliceous deposits from diatoms that formed siliceous oozes. Diatomaceous earth is an excellent abrasive and filtering agent
The rings could tell the age
The Oceans formed these deposits which are called Manganese Nodules. Besides Manganese, there are large concentrations of Cobalt, Copper, Iron and Nickel making them valuable. Notice a fossilized shark’s tooth that was found in a manganese nodule.
They are from outside earth including
Asteroids and Comets can form particles called TEKTITES with high Iridium concentrations
Formed by volcanoes which can produce
Tephra are ash particles that can be in many forms and carry over long distances in the atmosphere
Determining Past Climate ChangeScientists have employed many methods to piece together the past climatic record-One such method is to look at sediments on the ocean floor-Research vessels produce sediment profiles from the bottom of the ocean-The sediment contains calcium carbonate shells from organisms that have lived near the earth's surface in the past-The type of calcium carbonate shell can tell you something about temperature since some live only within narrow temperature ranges.