THREE PERIODS IN HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF ENDOCRINOLOGY. DESCRIPTIVE PERIODPERIOD OF ANALYTICAL ENDOCRINOLOGYCONTEMPORARY PERIOD/SYNTHETIC ENDOCRINOLOGY. I. DESCRIPTIVE PERIOD. Gonads and liver were known to earliest physicians1400 BC
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BRIEF History of endocrinology
“THOUSANDS OF GOLD PRISCRIPTION” by SON SSU MO 695AD
a) if the woman vomits- she is pregnant
b) if only flatulence - never bear again
The skull- mummy
Cleaopatra (69 BC)
Considered to be symbol of beauty(MIDDLE AGES)
Alexandrians-III century bc-thymus
Galen -greek(AD 129 – 200) thyroid, pineal&pitutary
Bartolommeo eustachi-suprarenals-16th century
Paul langerhans (1847-1888)-insula of pancreas -1869
17th century William Harvey describes heart as a four chambered pump that moves blood through arteries and veins, not air.
Mid 1800s idea that circulating blood carries substances from one part of the body to a distant part where the substance exerts its effect.
SPECIAL PHYSIOLOGY OF ENDOCRINE GLANDS : THE HORMONES
John hunter(1728 – 1793)-1792
Arnold Adolph Berthold ( 1 803-1 86 1 ) -1849
Concept of internal secretion-established in scientific knowledge
The great triumvirate
1855-the glycogenic function of the liver; in the course of this he was led to the conclusion, which throws light on the causation of diabetes mellitus, that the liver, in addition to secreting bile, is the seat of an internal secretion, by which it prepares sugar at the expense of the elements of the blood passing through it
“lessons on experimental physiology”
1855- “Constitutional And Local Effects Of Disease Of Supra Renal Capsule”
Role of internal secretion is demonstrated through anatomical observations
Addisonian anemia/pernicious anemia
1855- Demonstrated that removal of the adrenal gland resulted in death, due to lack of essential hormones.
1905-ernest h starling
First to use the word hormone at royal college of physicians, in his Croonian lectures , HARMAO = GREEK VERB;HAVING PROPERTY OF STIMULATING
Harvey Williams Cushing "father of modern neurosurgery".
The connection between hormonal & nervous system: neurohumoral system
Hippocrates(460 BC – 370 BC) – disease of scyths: hypo-orchadism/climatic hypoovarism
Hypothyroidism-Earliest to studied
1850- TB Curling:
described role of thyroid in symptom complex of cretinism
Student assistant Charles H. Best and Frederick G. Banting are standing on the roof of the medical building with one of the diabetic dogs used in their experiments with insulin