LDE 3910 – Week 4. Vicki Nilles Metropolitan State College [email protected] Week 4. Building Community – Interest Surveys Historical Legislation for Linguistically Diverse Students Understanding L2 Acquisition- Basic Fundamentals Homework – Me Bags. Principles of Language Learning.
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2) 24 Months
3) 48 Months
4) 60 Months
Structural Awareness Stage
5) Kindergarten Level
6) Grade 1 Level
7) Grade 2-6 Level
Communication Dev. Stage
1) Child vocalizes.
2) Speech is abbreviated. Child uses 2 word utterances.
3) Language has features of adult language
4) Child makes errors by over-generalizing.
5) Child can generate original language.
6) Child is able to create his/her own language.
7) Child learns difficult phonemes/complex grammarDevelopment of First Language in Children
Development of Primary Language Development of Second Language
Key Concepts General Implications Implications for Spec. Programs
Cary, # 3,&7
Krashen believes that optimum language acquisition takes place in low anxiety environments where defensiveness is absent. If the acquirer is anxious, has low self-esteem, does not consider him or herself as a potential member of the group that speaks the language, s/he may understand the input but it will not reach the language acquisition device – as a block- Affective Filter- will keep it out.
Stress impedes any learning process!5. The Affective Filter Hypothesis
Linguistic expert Jim Cummins, has proposed a model that offers theoretical insight into the influences of L1 and L2 in a school setting.
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills: A level of English proficiency which includes the ability to handle complex conversation ( one might call it ability to get along in the outside world) using contextual clues such as paralinguistic feedback from the other speaker(i.e. gestures and intonation) and situational cues to meaning. This level of native-like proficiency generally takes students 2 years to master. Tasks at this end of the second language acquisition continuum are not very demanding cognitively.
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency place in low anxiety environments where defensiveness is absent. If the acquirer is anxious, has low self-esteem, does not consider him or herself as a potential member of the group that speaks the language, s/he may understand the input but it will not reach the language acquisition device – as a block- Affective Filter- will keep it out. illustrates when a student is moving to the opposite end of the second language acquisition continuum. CALP involves language which is context-reduced and highly demanding cognitively. Context reduced communication relies heavily on linguistic cues alone and involves abstract thinking. It is what we think of as traditional academic instruction at secondary and adult levels. Cummins research supports that when language majority students work academically only in L2, it takes them from 5-7 years to master commonly accepted age-grade norms in context-reduced aspects of English proficiency.
In addition, skills in context reduced language developed in the first language automatically transfer to the second language. All current linguistic research supports the theory that there is common underlying proficiency (CUP) for both languages.
Well in this school we have some kids who speak another language
O that is so great, O that is so great, O that is so great
Let’s really celebrate it!
Let’s teach them well with what we know about Sheltered Instruction
O this will be fun, O this will be fun, this will be so fun,
We cannot wait to try it!
BICS and BICS and CALP, BICS and BICS and CALP, BICS and BICS and CALP,
And this is how it goes O.
With BICS kids can communicate just using basic English,
O they talk at lunch, O they talk at lunch, O they talk at lunch,
And then they switch to Spanish!
Yes in just two years, Yes in just two years, Yes in just two years,
They really sound terrific!
Now here is where it complicates because they need school language,
CALP is what we want, CALP is what we want, CALP is what we want.
But we will have to wait O.
This is what we know, this is what we know, this is what we know,
That it takes five to seven!
Dr. Scarcella defines Academic English as, “ A variety or register of English used in professional books and characterized by the specific linguistic features associated with academic disciplines”. Academic English tasks may include: reading abstracts; capturing key ideas from lectures; writing critiques, summaries, annotated bibliographies, reports, case studies, and expository essays. It also includes a variety of genre. It also includes many sub-registers related to specific content areas such science, math and economics (John 1977, as cited by Scarcella, 2003).
Academic English becomes useful in institutes of higher education and is ranked highly in the United States as it is used by the educated and those in positions of power in academic and business settings. Academic English is continually evolving in educational contexts. Language shifts to meet changing literary tasks and purposes and therefore, academic English is not acquired once and for all but is a continuum upon which learners continue to travel. Each discipline continues to develop its own literacy and therefore requires continual language development within the developing discipline ( Johns, 1997; Scheppnell & Colombie, 2002).
Scarcella believes that academic English should be taught due to the fact that there are regular features of academic English that are well defined and teachable. Literacy must also be defined and broadly stated it “suggests the involvement of mechanics necessary in decoding, higher order thinking – conceptualizing, inferring, inventing, and testing, and oral communication skills” (August & Hakuta, 1997; Wong-Fillmore & Snow, 2000).
Phonological Component: All learners must know the English sounds and the ways in which these sounds are combined. In speech, knowledge of pronunciation of consonants and vowels, and consonant clusters, as well as stress intonation patterns are addressed.
Lexical Component Scarcella:
In order to communicate daily in cognitively demanding environments, students must have a knowledge of vocabulary. Words characteristic of academic English include words used across disciplines, technical words that are used in specific academic fields, and non-technical academic words that are used across academic fields.
Grammatical Component Scarcella:
Academic English entails all of the knowledge of grammar and everyday life at a minimum such as: accurate use of frequently occurring morphological and syntactic features as well as the functions of these features; plural endings added to nouns, the ability to subordinate, use of definite and indefinite articles and demonstrative adjectives, knowledge of verb system-infinitive complement, gerund compliment, That-clause complements. Academic English also requires the grammatical components of everyday life as well as knowledge of structures such as parallel clauses, conditional, and complex clauses; passive structures; ergative structures; conditionals; noun, reference, verb, and modality systems.
Sociolinguistic Component Scarcella:
Enables students to understand the extent to which sentences are produced and understood appropriately (Swain & Lapkin, 1990). Academic English regarding a sociolinguistic component involves an increased number of language functions including: apologizing; complaining; requesting; signaling cause & effect; hypothesizing; generalizing; comparing; contrasting; explaining; describing; defining; justifying; giving examples; sequencing; and evaluating. Sociolinguistic competence also includes the ability to write cohesively and demonstrating skills of writing in the areas of expository essays, argumentative papers, research papers, abstracts and dissertations (Johns, 1997).