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Natural Sciences 360 Legacy of Life Lecture 07 Dr. Stuart S. Sumida. ANIMALIA (More Similar to Fungi than Plants). ANIMAL SIMILARITIES PLANTS FUNGI Cell Walls - Immobile - Often need - substrate - Heterotrophs - Not photosynthetic.

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Natural Sciences 360

Legacy of Life

Lecture 07

Dr. Stuart S. Sumida

ANIMALIA

(More Similar to Fungi than Plants)


ANIMAL SIMILARITIES

PLANTS FUNGI

Cell Walls -

Immobile -

Often need -

substrate

- Heterotrophs

- Not photosynthetic



Eumetazoa has:

Germ Layers

Endoderm

Ectoderm

Tissues


Segmentation: an example:

A simplified arthropod larva with multiple segments, each with appendages, or the genetic ability to develop appendages.


Different kinds of arthropods can elaborate upon different segments and appendages. This provides an enormous versatility.


Choanoflagella segments and appendages. This provides an enormous versatility.

Porifora

Placozoa

Ctenophora

Cnidaria

Protostomia

Pterobranchia

Echinodermata

Hemichordata

Chordata

Animalia

(What of this do I need

to know?!?)


Choanoflagella segments and appendages. This provides an enormous versatility.

Animalia


Choanoflagellates have no fossil record. It is likely that choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Choanoflagellates are almost identical in shape and function with the choanocytes or “collar cells” of sponges; these cells generate a current that draws water and food particles through the body of a sponge, and they filter out food particles.


Animalia choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Multicellular heterotrophs


Choanoflagella choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Porifora

Metazoa


Porifera (Sponges): choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Known as far back as PreCambrian

600 million years ago.


Example: Porifora (Sponges): No true tissues choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.


Choanoflagella choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Porifora

Placozoa


Placozoa: Only one species: choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Trichoplax adhaerens


Choanoflagella choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Porifora

Placozoa

Ctenophora

Cnidaria

Eumetazoa


Eumetazoa choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Germ Layers

Endoderm

Ectoderm

Tissues


Ctenophores and Cnidarians choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Two germ layers

Only one opening into gut.


Ctenophores and Cnidarians choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Known as far back as PreCambrian “Ediacarian Faunas”.


Cnidaria: Corals choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.


Cnidaria: Anenomes choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.


Cnidaria: choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Jelly fish


Ctenophora (Comb Jellies) choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.


Choanoflagella choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Porifora

Placozoa

Ctenophora

Cnidaria

Protostomia

Bilateralia


Bilateralia choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Bilaterally symmetrical at some point during ontogeny

(“Ontogeny” = lifecycle from conception to death)


Bilateralia choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Includes two great groups of animals:

Protostomia (means 1st mouth)

Deuterostomia (means 2nd mouth)


  • Protostomia includes many phyla, including: choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

  • Arthropoda

  • Mollusca

  • Annelida (segmented worms)

  • Many others


Choanoflagella choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Porifora

Placozoa

Ctenophora

Cnidaria

Protostomia

Pterobranchia

Deuterostomia

(We’ll do these later.)


PROTOSTOMIA choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Bilateralia – Part 1


Choanoflagella choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Porifora

Placozoa

Ctenophora

Cnidaria

Protostomia

Pterobranchia

Echinodermata

Hemichordata

Chordata

Animalia


Recall : Bilateralia – choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans. Includes two great groups of animals:

Protostomia (means 1st mouth)

Deuterostomia (means 2nd mouth)


  • Protostomia includes many phyla, including: choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

  • Arthropoda

  • Mollusca

  • Annelida (segmented worms)

  • Many others


Ecdysozoa choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Others

Platyhelminthes

Mollusca

Annelida

Lophotrochozoa


Ecdysozoa choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Others

Platyhelminthes

Mollusca

Annelida

Lophotrochozoa


Platyhelminthes choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans. – flatworms thought to be a primitive member of this grouping.

Lack a “coelom” – a fluid-

filled space between gut tube

and body wall.


Ecdysozoa choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Others

Platyhelminthes

Mollusca

Annelida

Lophotrochozoa


Annelid Worms: choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Annelid-like organisms are known from PreCambrian (over 600 million years old) Edicarian Faunas.

Key Innovation: Segmentation


Annelid worms thought to be possibly primitive to Mollusca. choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.


  • MOLLUSCA choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

  • Most groups known back to Cambrian or PreCambrian

  • Includes:

  • Polyplacophora (chitons)

  • Bilvavia

  • Cephalopoda

  • Gastropoda


  • Features of choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans. MOLLUSCA

  • Four key synapomorphies:

  • Shell

  • Mantle (secretes shell)

  • Radula (feeding appraratus)

  • Muscular foot


POLYPLACOPHORA choanoflagellates existed on the Earth since the Late Precambrian, because they are the closest living relatives of the sponges, the most primitive metazoans.

Chitions – Molluscs with segmented shells



Gastropods: (closing muscle)

All gastropods have some degree of TORSION (twisting).


  • Cephalopoda (closing muscle) – includes:

  • Nautiloids

  • Ammonoids*

  • Cuttlefish

  • Squid

  • Octopi

  • *found by Mary Anning


Ecdysozoa (closing muscle)

Others

Platyhelminthes

Mollusca

Annelida

Lophotrochozoa


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