First Nations Education

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First Nations Education

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1. First Nations Education A Brief History

3. Indian Act of 1876 Education of First Nations was legislated Federal government is responsible for all aspects of education

4. Residential Schools Over 130 schools operated over time within Canada Majority of schools ceased to operate in the mid-1970s Last federally-run school closed in Saskatchewan in 1996

7. Residential Schools Located away from community Children were forced to leave their families Many endured physical, sexual and emotional abuses Culture, such as language, forbidden to be practiced

9. Indian Control of Indian Education, 1972 Local control Parental responsibility Culturally based curriculum Adult education programs Federal government responsible for funding

10. Indian Control of Indian Education, 1972 In Indian tradition each adult is personally responsible for each child, to see that he learns all he needs to know in order to live a good life

11. Indian Control of Indian Education, 1972 Two goals for the children: Reinforce their Indian identity Provide the training necessary for making a good living in modern society

12. Indian Control of Indian Education, 1972 Accepted by the General Assembly of the National Indian Brotherhood in 1972 Approved by Jean Chretien, then Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, in February of 1973

13. Control over education Even though the policy was approved, the term “control” came to mean a “degree of participation” Unresolved issues still remain regarding First Nations education

14. How Natives Educate Themselves

15. Goals of Native Educators To teach and emphasize the importance of tradition and heritage within the native culture To teach about the importance of family and community

16. Goals of Native Educators To teach students how to live happily within society Teaching is focused on employment success rather than a college/university education.

17. Teaching Strategies Used by Native Educators Teaching is very student directed Lessons are built highly on experimentation and hands on activities Lessons are commonly taught with the students in a circle

18. Mission Statement of a Catholic Secondary School To celebrate our Catholic faith and spirit by accepting the challenge of living the Gospel. As partners in learning, we will dedicate ourselves to developing the necessary skills and attitudes that will enable us to contribute to the well-being of our local and global community.

19. Mission Statement of a Native Secondary School To assist each student in achieving their academic goals in a dignified, caring environment with consideration for and emphasis on the culture and heritage of the native community.

20. First Nations Integration in a Northern Ontario School National anthem sung in Ojibwe. Assembly with local Native drummers Lessons to students, teachers and administrators about First Nations Culture (ceremonies, etc.) Question – Did anyone have a similar experience on practicum?

21. Introducing Aboriginal Culture and History in the Curriculum Activity ideas Issues

22. In the curriculum Aboriginal studies can be incorporated in most subjects across the curriculum A great way to educate students and eliminate any stereotypes the students may already have

23. Why? Clearer Understanding of Current Events Cultural Appreciation Establish Dialogue CRITICAL THINKING

24. Possible Challenges Possible Stereotyping Deep feelings of Resentment Student Apathy Strong feelings for or against assimilation

25. Politically Correct Terms Inuit First Nations Aboriginal Native American

26. In the Curriculum Physical Education The grade 9 students will: Use and combine movement skills in a variety of physical activities Demonstrate understanding of the importance of movement principles in performing isolated or combined movement skills

27. In the Curriculum Activity: Inuit Games Games played by Inuit communities Olympics of the North e.g. Toe Jump, Jump through stick, Hand pull, High kick, Iglagunerk

28. In the Curriculum Visual Arts The grade 5 students will: Solve artistic problems in their work, using the elements of design and at least one of the principles of design (e.g., create a work depicting a local historical event, using line and colour as means of emphasis to highlight the most important aspect of the picture)

29. In the Curriculum Activity Students research an famous Aboriginal artist e.g. Pitseolak Ashoona, Kenojuak Ashevak Create their own drawing and creations based on findings

30. In the Curriculum History The Grade 8 students will: Demonstrate an understanding of the growth and development of the West from the points of view of the Aboriginal peoples and Metis

31. In the Curriculum Activity Students research the Aboriginals contributions to invention e.g. Aspirin (willow tree), Canoe, Chewing gum

32. In the Curriculum Geography The Grade 8 students will: Produce a variety of maps for specific purposes (e.g., maps that show popular tourist destinations)

33. In the Curriculum Activity Have the students create maps of the voyager/Aboriginal trading routes

34. In the Curriculum Drama The Grade 8 students will: Write, memorize, and present, through drama and dance, short documentary scenes based on their improvisational work and on source material drawn from diverse cultures

35. In the Curriculum Activity Show a video or read an article of Aboriginal history in Canada. Have the students act out their own versions of the events.

36. More Activity Ideas Word Studies Artifact Studies Email Project Read Legends Live Performance Guest Speaker Art Display Media Study

38. Curriculum Fun Open Word on computer In pairs, take a paper from hat Each one has a specific expectation Brainstorm activities to introduce Aboriginal culture and history Email document to [email protected]

39. Good Websites to mark

40. 134 First Nations Communities of Ontario

41. Discussion Questions 1) What image do you have of Aboriginal People? What has formed this image? 2) How will you address motivating Aboriginal students in your classroom?

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