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Chapter Menu. Lesson 1: Natural Selection Lesson 2: Adaptation and Extinction. Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson. 5.1 Natural Selection. evolution naturalist natural selection adaptation. 5.1 Natural Selection. Charles Darwin. Evolution is change over time.

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Chapter Menu

Lesson 1:Natural Selection

Lesson 2:Adaptation and Extinction

Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.


5.1 Natural Selection

evolution

naturalist

natural selection

adaptation


5.1 Natural Selection

Charles Darwin

  • Evolution is change over time.

  • The naturalist Charles Darwin was the first person to write a thorough collection of evidence supporting evolution.

  • Darwin’s theory serves as the basis of all biological research today.


5.1 Natural Selection

Charles Darwin (cont.)

  • Darwin explored South America and its remote islands, such as the Galapagos, on the HMS Beagle.


5.1 Natural Selection

Darwin’s Observations

  • Darwin made observations about the diversity and uniqueness of organisms.

  • Many of the animals on the Galapagos were similar, but not the same as organisms in mainland South America.

  • Darwin reasoned that perhaps the organisms in the Galapagos originally came from South America and over time, they had evolved.


5.1 Natural Selection

Tortoises

  • Darwin found giant tortoises on all the Galapagos Islands, but nowhere else.

  • He reasoned that each new population changed slightly, or evolved, to fit its unique environment on the island.


5.1 Natural Selection

Finches

  • Darwin was impressed by the diversity of finches on the Galapagos.

  • Darwin explained that if individuals from a species were separated, future generations might look and behave differently.

  • The finches became different because they became suited to the different habitats on the islands.


5.1 Natural Selection

Selective Breeding

  • Selective breeding is breeding plants and animals to get offspring with desired characteristics.

  • This does not lead to a new species—the organism can still breed with other members of its species.


5.1 Natural Selection

Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection

  • Organisms with traits that allowed them to survive under particular environmental conditions produced more offspring.

  • Eventually those traits would be common in the species.

How can natural selection be modeled?


5.1 Natural Selection

Genetic Variation

  • Sometimes changes occur in genes and a new trait is created.

  • If the trait is beneficial, the organism may survive and pass the trait on to the next generation.

  • Genetic variation is necessary for evolution to occur.


5.1 Natural Selection

Population Growth and Struggle to Survive

  • Although resources are limited, animals often produce more offspring than could survive.

  • Darwin decided this was a natural process that selected which organism survived, and called it natural selection.

  • Adaptation refers to traits that increase the likelihood of surviving and reproducing in a particular environment.


5.1 Natural Selection

Natural Selection

  • Four steps or requirements of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection:

  • Step 1: Overproduction

  • Step 2: Relative similarity

  • Step 3: Inherited variation

  • Step 4: Natural selection


5.1 Natural Selection

Natural Selection (cont.)

Overproduction

Inherited Variation

Variation

Natural Selection


5.1 Natural Selection

Lesson 1 Review

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What did Darwin observe about the tortoises and finches in the Galapagos?

Atheir large size

Btheir similarity to those on the mainland

Ctheir adaptations to their environments

Dtheir friendliness


5.1 Natural Selection

Lesson 1 Review

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What is necessary for evolution to occur?

Aselective breeding

Bgenetic variation

Cpopulations isolated on islands

Dnone of the above


5.1 Natural Selection

Lesson 1 Review

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What is not a main source of genetic variation?

Adifferences in diet

Bsexual reproduction

Cmutations

Dgamete formation


End of Lesson 1


5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

structural adaptation

camouflage

mimicry

behavioral adaptation

extinct


5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Adaptations

  • Humans can change their environment to meet their needs.

  • Organisms have evolved adaptations to their environment by the process of natural selection.


5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Understanding Adaptations

  • Adaptations are inherited traits that increase an organism’s chance of surviving and reproducing in a particular environment.

  • Adaptations are the final products of the long process of natural selection.

  • Adaptations are naturally selected for, not intentional.

  • Not all traits are adaptations.


5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Types of Adaptations

  • Structural adaptations are aspects of the physical body that help organisms survive and reproduce.

  • Camouflage—coloring that blends with the environment—makes organisms difficult to see.


5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Types of Adaptations (cont.)

  • Mimicry is when one species (the mimic) looks like another species (the model) in order to deceive a third species.

  • Behavioral adaptations are actions or behaviors that help organisms survive and reproduce.


5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Extinction

  • A species becomes extinct when all the individuals of a particular species die off.

  • There have been several major extinction events in history.


5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Causes of Extinction

  • Loss of habitat

  • Loss of genetic diversity

  • Competition with exotic species

  • Inability to adapt

Causes of Slow Extinction


5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Lesson 2 Review

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What is not an example of an adaptation?

Ainbreeding

Bcamouflage

Cmimicry

Dbehavior


5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Lesson 2 Review

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Why do some non-desirable traits remain in a population?

Aselective breeding

Bmutation

Cthey are genetically linked to more beneficial traits

Dthey may be useful in the future


5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Lesson 2 Review

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What cause for extinction would most likely be involved in rapid environmental changes such as climate change?

Aloss of habitat

Binability to adapt

Closs of genetic diversity

Dcompetition with exotic species


End of Lesson 2


Chapter Resources Menu

Chapter Assessment

California Standards Practice

Image Bank

Science Online

Interactive Table

Virtual Lab

Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.


Chapter Assessment 1

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What is evolution?

Aadaptations to particular environments

Bgenetic change in a population over time

Cnatural selection

Ddifferences in traits


Chapter Assessment 2

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What is necessary for natural selection to occur?

Agenetic variation

Bconstant environmental conditions

Cisolate populations

Dshortage of offspring


Chapter Assessment 3

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Which of the following is NOT one of the main sources of genetic variation in a population?

Amutations

Blearned abilities

Cformation of gametes

Dsexual reproduction


Chapter Assessment 4

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Which of the causes of extinction is not influenced by human actions?

Ainability to adapt

Bloss of genetic diversity

Closs of habitat

Dcompetition with exotic species


Chapter Assessment 5

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Why do desert rabbits have mottled fur?

Abehavioral adaptations

Bmimicry

Ccamouflage

Dincomplete dominance


SCI 3.a

CA Standards Practice 1

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What causes evolution?

Agenetic variation

Benvironmental factors

Cboth

Dneither


CA Standards Practice 2

SCI 3.e

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What is one reason exotic species can sometimes outcompete native species?

Athey have no natural predators

Bthere are more of them

Cthe new environment is more favorable

Dthe natives are not adapted


CA Standards Practice 3

SCI 3.e

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

When do we designate a species as threatened or endangered?

Awhen there is one population left

Bwhen the number of individuals fallsbelow a certain level

Cwhen population numbers are declining

Dwhen genetic variation is low


CA Standards Practice 4

SCI 3.a

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Which is required for natural selection to occur?

Ainherited variation

Boverproduction of offspring

Cgenetic variation

Dall of the above


CA Standards Practice 5

SCI 3.b

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Which of the following did not contribute to Darwin’s development of the theory of natural selection?

Aoverproduction of offspring

Bcompetition with exotic species in the Galapagos

Can essay on human population growth

Dsimilarities and differences of species in the Galapagos


Image Bank


Interactive Table

Causes of Slow Extinction


End of Resources


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