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Chapter Menu. Lesson 1: Natural Selection Lesson 2: Adaptation and Extinction. Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson. 5.1 Natural Selection. evolution naturalist natural selection adaptation. 5.1 Natural Selection. Charles Darwin. Evolution is change over time.

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Chapter menu
Chapter Menu

Lesson 1:Natural Selection

Lesson 2:Adaptation and Extinction

Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding lesson.


5 1 natural selection
5.1 Natural Selection

evolution

naturalist

natural selection

adaptation


Charles darwin

5.1 Natural Selection

Charles Darwin

  • Evolution is change over time.

  • The naturalist Charles Darwin was the first person to write a thorough collection of evidence supporting evolution.

  • Darwin’s theory serves as the basis of all biological research today.


Charles darwin cont

5.1 Natural Selection

Charles Darwin (cont.)

  • Darwin explored South America and its remote islands, such as the Galapagos, on the HMS Beagle.


Darwin s observations

5.1 Natural Selection

Darwin’s Observations

  • Darwin made observations about the diversity and uniqueness of organisms.

  • Many of the animals on the Galapagos were similar, but not the same as organisms in mainland South America.

  • Darwin reasoned that perhaps the organisms in the Galapagos originally came from South America and over time, they had evolved.


Tortoises

5.1 Natural Selection

Tortoises

  • Darwin found giant tortoises on all the Galapagos Islands, but nowhere else.

  • He reasoned that each new population changed slightly, or evolved, to fit its unique environment on the island.


Finches

5.1 Natural Selection

Finches

  • Darwin was impressed by the diversity of finches on the Galapagos.

  • Darwin explained that if individuals from a species were separated, future generations might look and behave differently.

  • The finches became different because they became suited to the different habitats on the islands.


Selective breeding

5.1 Natural Selection

Selective Breeding

  • Selective breeding is breeding plants and animals to get offspring with desired characteristics.

  • This does not lead to a new species—the organism can still breed with other members of its species.


Darwin s theory of natural selection

5.1 Natural Selection

Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection

  • Organisms with traits that allowed them to survive under particular environmental conditions produced more offspring.

  • Eventually those traits would be common in the species.

How can natural selection be modeled?


Genetic variation

5.1 Natural Selection

Genetic Variation

  • Sometimes changes occur in genes and a new trait is created.

  • If the trait is beneficial, the organism may survive and pass the trait on to the next generation.

  • Genetic variation is necessary for evolution to occur.


Population growth and struggle to survive

5.1 Natural Selection

Population Growth and Struggle to Survive

  • Although resources are limited, animals often produce more offspring than could survive.

  • Darwin decided this was a natural process that selected which organism survived, and called it natural selection.

  • Adaptation refers to traits that increase the likelihood of surviving and reproducing in a particular environment.


Natural selection

5.1 Natural Selection

Natural Selection

  • Four steps or requirements of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection:

  • Step 1: Overproduction

  • Step 2: Relative similarity

  • Step 3: Inherited variation

  • Step 4: Natural selection


Natural selection cont

5.1 Natural Selection

Natural Selection (cont.)

Overproduction

Inherited Variation

Variation

Natural Selection


Lesson 1 review

5.1 Natural Selection

Lesson 1 Review

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What did Darwin observe about the tortoises and finches in the Galapagos?

A their large size

B their similarity to those on the mainland

C their adaptations to their environments

D their friendliness


Lesson 1 review1

5.1 Natural Selection

Lesson 1 Review

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What is necessary for evolution to occur?

A selective breeding

B genetic variation

C populations isolated on islands

D none of the above


Lesson 1 review2

5.1 Natural Selection

Lesson 1 Review

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What is not a main source of genetic variation?

A differences in diet

B sexual reproduction

C mutations

D gamete formation



5 2 adaptation and extinction
5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

structural adaptation

camouflage

mimicry

behavioral adaptation

extinct


Adaptations

5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Adaptations

  • Humans can change their environment to meet their needs.

  • Organisms have evolved adaptations to their environment by the process of natural selection.


Understanding adaptations

5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Understanding Adaptations

  • Adaptations are inherited traits that increase an organism’s chance of surviving and reproducing in a particular environment.

  • Adaptations are the final products of the long process of natural selection.

  • Adaptations are naturally selected for, not intentional.

  • Not all traits are adaptations.


Types of adaptations

5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Types of Adaptations

  • Structural adaptations are aspects of the physical body that help organisms survive and reproduce.

  • Camouflage—coloring that blends with the environment—makes organisms difficult to see.


Types of adaptations cont

5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Types of Adaptations (cont.)

  • Mimicry is when one species (the mimic) looks like another species (the model) in order to deceive a third species.

  • Behavioral adaptations are actions or behaviors that help organisms survive and reproduce.


Extinction

5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Extinction

  • A species becomes extinct when all the individuals of a particular species die off.

  • There have been several major extinction events in history.


Causes of extinction

5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Causes of Extinction

  • Loss of habitat

  • Loss of genetic diversity

  • Competition with exotic species

  • Inability to adapt

Causes of Slow Extinction


Lesson 2 review

5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Lesson 2 Review

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What is not an example of an adaptation?

A inbreeding

B camouflage

C mimicry

D behavior


Lesson 2 review1

5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Lesson 2 Review

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Why do some non-desirable traits remain in a population?

A selective breeding

B mutation

C they are genetically linked to more beneficial traits

D they may be useful in the future


Lesson 2 review2

5.2 Adaptation and Extinction

Lesson 2 Review

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What cause for extinction would most likely be involved in rapid environmental changes such as climate change?

A loss of habitat

B inability to adapt

C loss of genetic diversity

D competition with exotic species



Chapter resources menu
Chapter Resources Menu

Chapter Assessment

California Standards Practice

Image Bank

Science Online

Interactive Table

Virtual Lab

Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding feature.


Chapter assessment 1
Chapter Assessment 1

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What is evolution?

A adaptations to particular environments

B genetic change in a population over time

C natural selection

D differences in traits


Chapter assessment 2
Chapter Assessment 2

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What is necessary for natural selection to occur?

A genetic variation

B constant environmental conditions

C isolate populations

D shortage of offspring


Chapter assessment 3
Chapter Assessment 3

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Which of the following is NOT one of the main sources of genetic variation in a population?

A mutations

B learned abilities

C formation of gametes

D sexual reproduction


Chapter assessment 4
Chapter Assessment 4

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Which of the causes of extinction is not influenced by human actions?

A inability to adapt

B loss of genetic diversity

C loss of habitat

D competition with exotic species


Chapter assessment 5
Chapter Assessment 5

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Why do desert rabbits have mottled fur?

A behavioral adaptations

B mimicry

C camouflage

D incomplete dominance


Ca standards practice 1

SCI 3.a

CA Standards Practice 1

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What causes evolution?

A genetic variation

B environmental factors

C both

D neither


Ca standards practice 2
CA Standards Practice 2

SCI 3.e

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

What is one reason exotic species can sometimes outcompete native species?

A they have no natural predators

B there are more of them

C the new environment is more favorable

D the natives are not adapted


Ca standards practice 3
CA Standards Practice 3

SCI 3.e

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

When do we designate a species as threatened or endangered?

A when there is one population left

B when the number of individuals falls below a certain level

C when population numbers are declining

D when genetic variation is low


Ca standards practice 4
CA Standards Practice 4

SCI 3.a

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Which is required for natural selection to occur?

A inherited variation

B overproduction of offspring

C genetic variation

D all of the above


Ca standards practice 5
CA Standards Practice 5

SCI 3.b

  • A

  • B

  • C

  • D

Which of the following did not contribute to Darwin’s development of the theory of natural selection?

A overproduction of offspring

B competition with exotic species in the Galapagos

C an essay on human population growth

D similarities and differences of species in the Galapagos



Interactive table
Interactive Table

Causes of Slow Extinction



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