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Chapter Eleven. Selecting Message Appeals and Picking Endorsers.  2007 Thomson South-Western. Enhancing Processing Motivation, Opportunity, and Ability. Opportunity. Motivation. Ability. Enhancing Processing Motivation. Attend to the message Appeal to informational or hedonic needs

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 2007 Thomson South-Western

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2007 thomson south western

Chapter Eleven

Selecting Message Appeals and Picking Endorsers

 2007 Thomson South-Western

Enhancing processing motivation opportunity and ability

Enhancing Processing Motivation, Opportunity, and Ability




Enhancing processing motivation

Enhancing Processing Motivation

  • Attend to the message

  • Appeal to informational or hedonic needs

  • Using novel stimuli

  • Use intense cues

  • Use motion

  • Process brand info

  • Increased relevance of brand

  • Increased curiosity about brand

Motivation to attend to messages

Motivation to Attend to Messages

Voluntary Attention: is engaged when consumers devote attention to an advertisement or other marcom message that is perceived as relevant to their current purchase-related goals.

Involuntary Attention: occurs when attention is captured by the use of attention-gaining techniques rather than the consumer’s inherent interest in the topic at hand.

Enhancing motivation to attend to messages

Enhancing Motivation to Attend to Messages

An appeal to consumer’s informational needs

Appeals to informational and hedonic needs

Appeals to Informational and Hedonic Needs

  • Informational Needs- Consumers are attracted to stimuli that supplies relevant facts and figures.

  • Hedonic Needs- Consumers attend to messages that make them feel good and serve their pleasure needs like messages associated with good times, enjoyment, and things we value in life.

Enhancing motivation to attend to messages1

Enhancing Motivation to Attend to Messages

An appeal to

hedonic needs

Enhancing motivation to attend to messages2

Enhancing Motivation to Attend to Messages

An appeal to hedonic needs

Use of novel stimuli intense or prominent clues and motion

Use of Novel Stimuli, Intense or Prominent Clues, and Motion

  • Novel messages are unusual, distinctive, or unpredictable.

  • Intense or prominent clues increase the probability of attracting attention.

  • Motion attracts attention and is obviously used in TV commercials, but artistic and photographic techniques can be used to give the semblance of movement in print ads.

Enhancing motivation to attend to messages3

Enhancing Motivation to Attend to Messages

Using novelty to attract


Enhancing motivation to attend to messages4

Enhancing Motivation to Attend to Messages

Using An

Intense Stimulus

To Attract


Enhancing motivation to process messages

Enhancing Motivation to Process Messages

The Use of

Motion to



Motivation to process messages

Motivation to Process Messages

  • To enhance consumers’ motivation about a brand, marketing communicators can:

    • Enhance the relevance of the brand

      • Using rhetorical questions, fear appeals, and dramatic presentations.

    • Enhance curiosity about the brand

      • Using humor, presenting little information in the message, or opening a message with suspense or a surprise.

Enhancing processing motivation1

Enhancing Processing Motivation

The use of


to enhance



Enhance consumer s opportunity to

Enhance consumer’s OPPORTUNITY to:

  • encode information: the secret is repetition

  • reduce processing time: using pictures and distinct imagery to convey a message

Enhance consumers ability to

Enhance consumers’ ABILITY to:

  • access knowledge structures: provide a context for text or pictures with verbal framing.

  • create knowledge structures: facilitate exemplar-based learning

    • Exemplar: specimen or model of a concept or idea



  • Based on the straightforward idea that it is easier for people to remember and retrieve tangible rather than abstract information.

    • Make claims perceptible, palpable, real, evident and vivid

2007 thomson south western

The Use of

Analogy to

Create a



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Learning With


The role of endorsers in advertising

The Role of Endorsers in Advertising

Celebrity Endorsers

Typical People

Celebrity endorsers

Celebrity Endorsers

  • Advertisers are willing to pay huge salaries to celebrities who are liked and respected by target audiences and who will favorably influence consumers’ attitudes and behavior toward the endorsed products

Typical person endorsers

Typical-Person Endorsers

  • Show regular people using or endorsing products

  • Avoid the backlash from using “beautiful people” who may be resented

  • Real personal experience of the benefits of the particular brand possess a degree of credibility

  • Effective using multiple people rather than a single individual

The five components in the tears model of endorser attributes

The Five Components in the TEARS Model of Endorser Attributes

The tears model

The Tears Model

  • Refers to the honesty, integrity, and believability of a source

  • Often an endorser is perceived as highly trustworthy but not an expert


ExpertiseAttractiveness Respect Similarity

The tears model1

The Tears Model

  • Refers to the knowledge, experience, or skills possessed by an endorser as they relate to the endorsed brand


TrustworthinessAttractiveness Respect Similarity

The tears model2

The Tears Model

  • The trait of being regarded as pleasant to look at in terms of a particular group’s concept of attractiveness.


Trustworthiness Expertise Respect Similarity

The tears model3

The Tears Model

  • Represents the quality of being admired or even esteemed due to one’s personal qualities and accomplishments.


Trustworthiness Expertise AttractivenessSimilarity

The tears model4

The Tears Model

  • Represents the degree to which an endorser matches an audience in terms of characteristics pertinent to the endorsement relationship.

    • Age, gender, ethnicity, etc.

  • “Birds of a feather flock together”


Trustworthiness Expertise Attractiveness Respect

Choosing endorsers

Choosing endorsers

Celebrity and Audience Match up

An endorser must match up well with the endorsed brand’s target market

Will the target market positively relate to this endorser?

Example: NBA Players who endorse shoes

(1)Celebrity and audience match up

Choosing endorsers1

Choosing endorsers

Celebrity and Brand Match up

Advertising executives require that the celebrity’s behavior, values, and decorum be compatible with the image desired for the advertised brand

Example: Catherine Zeta Jones and Elizabeth Arden

(2)Celebrity and brand match up

Choosing endorsers2

Choosing endorsers

Celebrity Credibility

People who are trustworthy and perceived as knowledgeable about the product category are best able to convince others to undertake a particular course of action

See TEARS model for elaboration on Trustworthiness and Expertise

(3)Celebrity credibility

Choosing endorsers3

Choosing endorsers

Celebrity Attractiveness

Multifaceted as is described in the TEARS Model

Attractiveness is regarded as subordinate in importance to credibility and endorser match up with the audience and with the brand

(4)Celebrity attractiveness

Choosing endorsers4

Choosing endorsers

Cost Considerations

How much it will cost to acquire a celebrity’s services is an important consideration, but one that should not dictate the final choice

Evaluate candidates in comparison to alternative returns on that capital

(5)Cost considerations

Choosing endorsers5

Choosing endorsers

Working Ease/Difficulty Factor

Advertising agencies would prefer to avoid the “hassle factor”

(6)A working ease/difficulty factor

Choosing endorsers6

Choosing endorsers

Saturation Factor

If a celebrity is overexposed—endorsing too many products—his or her perceived credibility may suffer

Tiger Woods for example

(7)An endorsement-saturation factor

Choosing endorsers7

Choosing endorsers

The Trouble Factor

Likelihood that a celebrity will get into trouble after the endorsement relation is established

Example—Mike Tyson, Cybill Shepherd, O.J. Simpson

(8)A likelihood-of-getting-into-trouble factor

The role of q scores

The Role of Q Scores


Performance Q-Ratings



The role of humor in advertising

The Role of Humor in Advertising

  • Attracts attention

  • Enhances liking of ad and brand

  • Does not hurt comprehension

  • Does not harm persuasion

  • Does not enhance source credibility

  • Nature of product affects the appropriateness of using humor

The role of humor in advertising1

The Role of Humor in Advertising

  • Effective only when consumers’ evaluations of the advertised brand are already positive

  • Effect of humor can differ due to differences in audience characteristics

  • Humorous message may be so distracting that receivers ignore the message content

Use of humor

Use of Humor


Appeals to consumer fears

Appeals to Consumer Fears

  • Appeal to fear is effective as a means of enhancing motivation

  • Appeal by identifying the negative consequences of:

    Not using the product

    Engaging in unsafe behavior (example: drinking and driving)

Fear appeal logic

Fear-Appeal Logic

  • Stimulates audience involvement with a message

  • Promotes acceptance of message arguments

  • Takes the forms of either

    Social disapproval or

    Physical danger

Appropriate intensity

Appropriate Intensity

Degree of






Level of Fear Intensity

Appeals to scarcity

Appeals to Scarcity

  • Psychological Reactance: the theory that people react against any efforts to reduce their freedom or choices.

  • In Singapore, this fear is called Kiasu – the fear of losing out.

Appeals to consumer guilt

Appeals to Consumer Guilt

  • Advertisers and other marketing communicators attempt to imply that feelings of guilt can be assuaged by their product.

  • These ads are not effective if they lack credibility or if the advertisers are perceived as having manipulative intentions.

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Appeal to


The use of sex in advertising

The Use of Sex in Advertising

  • Initial attentional lure-the stopping power of sex

  • Enhance recall of message point

  • Evoke emotional responses such as feelings of arousal or lust.

  • To provoke a positive reaction, sexual content needs to be appropriate or relevant to the subject matter.

The potential downside of sex appeals

The Potential Downside of Sex Appeals

  • Interference with processing of message arguments and reduction in message comprehension

  • Demeaning to females and males

2007 thomson south western



Use of Partial

Nudity in


Subliminal messages and symbolic embeds

Subliminal Messages and Symbolic Embeds


Refers to the presentation of stimuli

at a rate or level that is below the

conscious threshold of awareness

A cautious challenge

A Cautious Challenge

  • Three forms of subliminal stimulation:

    • Visual stimulation using a tachistoscope

    • Accelerated speech in auditory messages

    • Embedding of hidden symbols

  • Embedding is a weak stimulus that probably does not effect brand choice much.

The functions of music in advertising

The Functions of Music in Advertising

  • Attracts attention

  • Promotes positive mood

  • Increase receptivity of message

  • Communicates meanings

The role of comparative advertising

The Role of Comparative Advertising

  • Better in enhancing brand awareness

  • Promotes better recall

  • Effective especially when the brand is a new

  • Generates more purchases

2007 thomson south western

The Role of

Comparative Advertising

Direct Comparison

2007 thomson south western

The Role of

Comparative Advertising

Indirect Comparison

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