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Chapter Eleven. Selecting Message Appeals and Picking Endorsers.  2007 Thomson South-Western. Enhancing Processing Motivation, Opportunity, and Ability. Opportunity. Motivation. Ability. Enhancing Processing Motivation. Attend to the message Appeal to informational or hedonic needs

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Chapter Eleven

Selecting Message Appeals and Picking Endorsers

 2007 Thomson South-Western



Enhancing processing motivation
Enhancing Processing Motivation

  • Attend to the message

  • Appeal to informational or hedonic needs

  • Using novel stimuli

  • Use intense cues

  • Use motion

  • Process brand info

  • Increased relevance of brand

  • Increased curiosity about brand


Motivation to attend to messages
Motivation to Attend to Messages

Voluntary Attention: is engaged when consumers devote attention to an advertisement or other marcom message that is perceived as relevant to their current purchase-related goals.

Involuntary Attention: occurs when attention is captured by the use of attention-gaining techniques rather than the consumer’s inherent interest in the topic at hand.


Enhancing motivation to attend to messages
Enhancing Motivation to Attend to Messages

An appeal to consumer’s informational needs


Appeals to informational and hedonic needs
Appeals to Informational and Hedonic Needs

  • Informational Needs- Consumers are attracted to stimuli that supplies relevant facts and figures.

  • Hedonic Needs- Consumers attend to messages that make them feel good and serve their pleasure needs like messages associated with good times, enjoyment, and things we value in life.


Enhancing motivation to attend to messages1
Enhancing Motivation to Attend to Messages

An appeal to

hedonic needs


Enhancing motivation to attend to messages2
Enhancing Motivation to Attend to Messages

An appeal to hedonic needs


Use of novel stimuli intense or prominent clues and motion
Use of Novel Stimuli, Intense or Prominent Clues, and Motion

  • Novel messages are unusual, distinctive, or unpredictable.

  • Intense or prominent clues increase the probability of attracting attention.

  • Motion attracts attention and is obviously used in TV commercials, but artistic and photographic techniques can be used to give the semblance of movement in print ads.


Enhancing motivation to attend to messages3
Enhancing Motivation to Attend to Messages

Using novelty to attract

attention


Enhancing motivation to attend to messages4
Enhancing Motivation to Attend to Messages

Using An

Intense Stimulus

To Attract

Attention


Enhancing motivation to process messages
Enhancing Motivation to Process Messages

The Use of

Motion to

Attract

Attention


Motivation to process messages
Motivation to Process Messages

  • To enhance consumers’ motivation about a brand, marketing communicators can:

    • Enhance the relevance of the brand

      • Using rhetorical questions, fear appeals, and dramatic presentations.

    • Enhance curiosity about the brand

      • Using humor, presenting little information in the message, or opening a message with suspense or a surprise.


Enhancing processing motivation1
Enhancing Processing Motivation

The use of

surprise

to enhance

processing

motivation


Enhance consumer s opportunity to
Enhance consumer’s OPPORTUNITY to:

  • encode information: the secret is repetition

  • reduce processing time: using pictures and distinct imagery to convey a message


Enhance consumers ability to
Enhance consumers’ ABILITY to:

  • access knowledge structures: provide a context for text or pictures with verbal framing.

  • create knowledge structures: facilitate exemplar-based learning

    • Exemplar: specimen or model of a concept or idea


Concretizations
Concretizations

  • Based on the straightforward idea that it is easier for people to remember and retrieve tangible rather than abstract information.

    • Make claims perceptible, palpable, real, evident and vivid


The Use of

Analogy to

Create a

Knowledge

Structure


Facilitating

Exemplar-Based

Learning With

Concretization


The role of endorsers in advertising
The Role of Endorsers in Advertising

Celebrity Endorsers

Typical People


Celebrity endorsers
Celebrity Endorsers

  • Advertisers are willing to pay huge salaries to celebrities who are liked and respected by target audiences and who will favorably influence consumers’ attitudes and behavior toward the endorsed products


Typical person endorsers
Typical-Person Endorsers

  • Show regular people using or endorsing products

  • Avoid the backlash from using “beautiful people” who may be resented

  • Real personal experience of the benefits of the particular brand possess a degree of credibility

  • Effective using multiple people rather than a single individual



The tears model
The Tears Model Attributes

  • Refers to the honesty, integrity, and believability of a source

  • Often an endorser is perceived as highly trustworthy but not an expert

Trustworthiness

Expertise Attractiveness Respect Similarity


The tears model1
The Tears Model Attributes

  • Refers to the knowledge, experience, or skills possessed by an endorser as they relate to the endorsed brand

Expertise

Trustworthiness Attractiveness Respect Similarity


The tears model2
The Tears Model Attributes

  • The trait of being regarded as pleasant to look at in terms of a particular group’s concept of attractiveness.

Atractiveness

Trustworthiness Expertise Respect Similarity


The tears model3
The Tears Model Attributes

  • Represents the quality of being admired or even esteemed due to one’s personal qualities and accomplishments.

Respect

Trustworthiness Expertise Attractiveness Similarity


The tears model4
The Tears Model Attributes

  • Represents the degree to which an endorser matches an audience in terms of characteristics pertinent to the endorsement relationship.

    • Age, gender, ethnicity, etc.

  • “Birds of a feather flock together”

Similarity

Trustworthiness Expertise Attractiveness Respect


Choosing endorsers
Choosing endorsers Attributes

Celebrity and Audience Match up

An endorser must match up well with the endorsed brand’s target market

Will the target market positively relate to this endorser?

Example: NBA Players who endorse shoes

(1) Celebrity and audience match up


Choosing endorsers1
Choosing endorsers Attributes

Celebrity and Brand Match up

Advertising executives require that the celebrity’s behavior, values, and decorum be compatible with the image desired for the advertised brand

Example: Catherine Zeta Jones and Elizabeth Arden

(2) Celebrity and brand match up


Choosing endorsers2
Choosing endorsers Attributes

Celebrity Credibility

People who are trustworthy and perceived as knowledgeable about the product category are best able to convince others to undertake a particular course of action

See TEARS model for elaboration on Trustworthiness and Expertise

(3) Celebrity credibility


Choosing endorsers3
Choosing endorsers Attributes

Celebrity Attractiveness

Multifaceted as is described in the TEARS Model

Attractiveness is regarded as subordinate in importance to credibility and endorser match up with the audience and with the brand

(4) Celebrity attractiveness


Choosing endorsers4
Choosing endorsers Attributes

Cost Considerations

How much it will cost to acquire a celebrity’s services is an important consideration, but one that should not dictate the final choice

Evaluate candidates in comparison to alternative returns on that capital

(5) Cost considerations


Choosing endorsers5
Choosing endorsers Attributes

Working Ease/Difficulty Factor

Advertising agencies would prefer to avoid the “hassle factor”

(6) A working ease/difficulty factor


Choosing endorsers6
Choosing endorsers Attributes

Saturation Factor

If a celebrity is overexposed—endorsing too many products—his or her perceived credibility may suffer

Tiger Woods for example

(7) An endorsement-saturation factor


Choosing endorsers7
Choosing endorsers Attributes

The Trouble Factor

Likelihood that a celebrity will get into trouble after the endorsement relation is established

Example—Mike Tyson, Cybill Shepherd, O.J. Simpson

(8) A likelihood-of-getting-into-trouble factor


The role of q scores
The Role of Q Scores Attributes

Q

Performance Q-Ratings

Q-Rating(quotient)

=popularity/familiarity


The role of humor in advertising
The Role of Humor in Advertising Attributes

  • Attracts attention

  • Enhances liking of ad and brand

  • Does not hurt comprehension

  • Does not harm persuasion

  • Does not enhance source credibility

  • Nature of product affects the appropriateness of using humor


The role of humor in advertising1
The Role of Humor in Advertising Attributes

  • Effective only when consumers’ evaluations of the advertised brand are already positive

  • Effect of humor can differ due to differences in audience characteristics

  • Humorous message may be so distracting that receivers ignore the message content


Use of humor
Use of Humor Attributes

Advair


Appeals to consumer fears
Appeals to Consumer Fears Attributes

  • Appeal to fear is effective as a means of enhancing motivation

  • Appeal by identifying the negative consequences of:

    Not using the product

    Engaging in unsafe behavior (example: drinking and driving)


Fear appeal logic
Fear-Appeal Logic Attributes

  • Stimulates audience involvement with a message

  • Promotes acceptance of message arguments

  • Takes the forms of either

    Social disapproval or

    Physical danger


Appropriate intensity
Appropriate Intensity Attributes

Degree of

Persuasive

Effectiveness

Low

Moderate

High

Level of Fear Intensity


Appeals to scarcity
Appeals to Scarcity Attributes

  • Psychological Reactance: the theory that people react against any efforts to reduce their freedom or choices.

  • In Singapore, this fear is called Kiasu – the fear of losing out.


Appeals to consumer guilt
Appeals to Consumer Guilt Attributes

  • Advertisers and other marketing communicators attempt to imply that feelings of guilt can be assuaged by their product.

  • These ads are not effective if they lack credibility or if the advertisers are perceived as having manipulative intentions.


An Attributes

Appeal to

Guilt


The use of sex in advertising
The Use of Sex in Advertising Attributes

  • Initial attentional lure-the stopping power of sex

  • Enhance recall of message point

  • Evoke emotional responses such as feelings of arousal or lust.

  • To provoke a positive reaction, sexual content needs to be appropriate or relevant to the subject matter.


The potential downside of sex appeals
The Potential Downside of Sex Appeals Attributes

  • Interference with processing of message arguments and reduction in message comprehension

  • Demeaning to females and males


An Attributes

Appropriate

Use of Partial

Nudity in

Advertising


Subliminal messages and symbolic embeds
Subliminal Messages and Attributes Symbolic Embeds

Subliminal

Refers to the presentation of stimuli

at a rate or level that is below the

conscious threshold of awareness


A cautious challenge
A Cautious Challenge Attributes

  • Three forms of subliminal stimulation:

    • Visual stimulation using a tachistoscope

    • Accelerated speech in auditory messages

    • Embedding of hidden symbols

  • Embedding is a weak stimulus that probably does not effect brand choice much.


The functions of music in advertising
The Functions of Music in Advertising Attributes

  • Attracts attention

  • Promotes positive mood

  • Increase receptivity of message

  • Communicates meanings


The role of comparative advertising
The Role of Comparative Advertising Attributes

  • Better in enhancing brand awareness

  • Promotes better recall

  • Effective especially when the brand is a new

  • Generates more purchases


The Role of Attributes

Comparative Advertising

Direct Comparison


The Role of Attributes

Comparative Advertising

Indirect Comparison


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