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World History. Chapter Three India & China (3000 B.C. – A.D. 500). Objectives. 1 . Explain how geography influenced the development in India & China 2 . Identify characteristics of these civilizations. Objectives.

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World history
World History

  • Chapter Three

  • India & China

  • (3000 B.C. – A.D. 500)


  • 1. Explain how geography influenced the development in India & China2. Identify characteristics of these civilizations


  • 3. Explain political & social structures in these countries4. Describe the role of religion5. List the contributions of each civilization

Section one early civilization in india
Section One: Early Civilization in India

I the land of india
I. The Land of India

  • Indian subcontinent, located along the southern edge of Asia, shaped like a triangle

  • Composed of mountain ranges, river valleys, a dry interior plateau & fertile coastal plains

The land of india
The Land of India

  • Himalaya, the highest mountains in the world

  • Ganges River, located on a rich valley, one of the chief regions of Indian culture

  • Deccan, a hilly & dry plateau that extends from the Ganges Valley to the southern tip of India

The land of india1
The Land of India

  • Monsoon – a seasonal wind pattern in Southern Asia the blows warm, moist air from the southwest during the summer, bringing heavy rains, & cold, dry air from the northeast during the winter (p.72)

  • Farmers depend on the rains to grow crops

Ii india s first civilization
II. India’s First Civilization

  • Between 3000 B.C. & 1500 B.C.

  • More than a thousand settlements in this region

  • Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro

A harappa mohenjo daro
A. Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro

  • Planned cities

  • Constructed of mud bricks baked in ovens & were square

  • Advanced drainage system

  • Well organized government

B rulers the economy
B. Rulers & the Economy

  • Divine assistance

  • Religion & political power closely linked

  • Economy based on farming

Rulers the economy
Rulers & the Economy

  • Trade with city-states in Mesopotamia

  • Trade was carried by ship via the Persian Gulf

Iii the arrival of the aryans
III. The Arrival of the Aryans

  • Floods, earthquakes & climate change weakened the civilization

  • Arrival of the Aryans brought it to an end

A who were the aryans
A. Who Were the Aryans?

  • Around 1500 B.C.

  • Aryans, A group of Indo-European nomadic peoples, who came out of central Asia

  • moved across the Hindu Kush mountain range

  • Created a new Indian society based on Aryan culture & institutions

B aryan ways of life
B. Aryan Ways of Life

  • Pastoral people, with a strong warrior tradition

  • Became farmers, using the iron plow & irrigation

  • Developed irrigation systems

Aryan ways of life
Aryan Ways of Life

  • Had no written language

  • Sanskrit - the first writing system of the Aryans, developed around 1000 B.C. (p.74)

  • Wrote down religious rituals, legends & chants

Aryan ways of life1
Aryan Ways of Life

  • Rajas - An Aryan leader or prince (p.74)

  • Carved out small states & fought one another

Iv society in ancient india
IV. Society in Ancient India

  • Set of social institutions & class divisions

A the caste system
A. The Caste System

  • Aryans social institutions & class divisions

  • Caste system – a set of rigid categories in ancient India that determined a person’s occupation & economic potential as well as his or her position in society, based partly on skin color (p.75)

The caste system
The Caste System

  • Caste – on of the five major divisions of Indian classes in ancient times

  • 1. Brahmans, priest class

  • 2. Kshatriyas, warriors

The caste system1
The Caste System

  • 3. Vaisyas, commoners

  • 4. Sudras, peasants (darker-skinned natives)

  • 5. Untouchables, trash collector & morticians (5%) of population

The Caste System

B the family in ancient india
B. The Family in Ancient India

  • Basic unit of Indian society

  • Extended family

  • Patriarchal

The family in ancient india
The Family in Ancient India

  • Ritual of suttee

  • Required a wife to throw herself on her dead husband’s flaming funeral pyre

V hinduism
V. Hinduism

  • Hinduism – the major Indian religion system, which had its origins in the religious beliefs of the Aryans who settled in India after 1500 B.C. (p.77)

  • Vedas, collection of hymns & religious ceremonies


  • Brahman, a form of ultimate reality or God

  • Individual self, or atman

  • Reincarnation – the rebirth of an individual’s soul in a different form after death (p.77)


  • After many existences the soul may unite with Brahman

  • Final goal is a union with Brahman


  • Karma – in Hinduism, the force generated by a person’s actions that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life (p.77) if they are reborn as a person


  • Dharma – in Hinduism, the divine law that rules karma, it requires all people to do their duty based on their status in society (p.77)

  • Duties vary with one’s caste


  • Justified the upper class & gave hope to the poor

  • Yoga – a method of training developed by the Hindus that is supposed to lead to oneness with God (p.77)


  • More than 33,000 deities

  • Brahma the creator

  • Vishnu the Preserver

  • Siva the Destroyer

Vi buddhism
VI. Buddhism

  • Buddhism – a religious doctrine introduced in northern India in the Sixth century B.C. by Siddartha Gautama, known as the Buddha, or “Enlightened One” (p.78)

  • Siddhartha Gautama, founder of Buddhism



A the story of the buddha
A. The Story of the Buddha

  • Witnessed death, disease & old age

  • Ascetic – a person who practices self-denial to achieve an understanding of ultimate reality (p.78)

  • Abusing his body, did not bring enlightenment

B the basic principles of buddhism
B. The Basic Principles of Buddhism

  • The pain, poverty & sorrow that afflict human beings are caused by their attachment to things of this world

  • The physical realm is illusion

  • Desire’s attachments cause suffering

The basic principles of buddhism
The Basic Principles of Buddhism

  • Nirvana – in Buddhism, ultimate reality, the end of the self & a reunion with the Great World Soul (p.78)

Four noble truths
Four Noble Truths

  • 1. Ordinary life is full of suffering

  • 2. This suffering is caused by our desire to satisfy ourselves

  • 3. The way to end suffering is to end desire for selfish goals & to see others as extensions of ourselves

  • 4. The way to end desire is to follow the Middle Path

The eightfold path
The Eightfold Path

  • 1. Right View

  • 2. Right intention

  • 3. Right Speech

  • 4. Right action

  • 5. Right livelihood

  • 6. Right effort

  • 7. Right Mindfulness

  • 8. Right concentration