Monitoring r d as a methodological tool for impact studies
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Monitoring R&D as a Methodological Tool for Impact Studies. Stig Slipersæter Norwegian Institute for Studies in Research and Higher Education Centre for Innovation Research. Background. Lack of international standards for output and impact indicators

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Monitoring R&D as a Methodological Tool for Impact Studies

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Monitoring r d as a methodological tool for impact studies

Monitoring R&D as a Methodological Tool for Impact Studies

Stig Slipersæter

Norwegian Institute for Studies in Research and Higher Education

Centre for Innovation Research


Background

Background

  • Lack of international standards for output and impact indicators

  • Small steps to integrate outcome data relevant for impact studies into Norway's national R&D statistics


Monitoring r d

Monitoring R&D

  • An example on monitoring

  • An example on use of data

  • Lessons learned


Example research institutes

Example: Research institutes

  • 65 independent research institutes

  • Annual budget about 1 billion US $

  • Approximately 7000 employees

  • Monitoring scheme run by NIFU on behalf of the Research Council of Norway

  • Purpose: Accountability and policy analysis

  • Integrated with regular R&D statistics


Input to research activities

Input to research activities

  • Financial resources split on:

    • Government funds

    • Normal research contracts:

      • Programme allowances from research council

      • Public sources, split on various ministries and their agencies, local and regional authorities etc.

      • Domestic industry, split into three categories

      • Contracts from abroad, split into seven categories

  • Detailed data on human capital


Output from research activites

Output from research activites

  • Indicators for output:

    • Enlarged set of variables for printed dissemination

      • Articles in scientific journals

      • Different kinds of reports

      • Books and chapters in books

      • Articles in magazines of professional associations

      • Popularization

    • Patents applied for and granted

    • Spin-offs

    • Partcipatons at conferences, seminars etc


Indicators for diffusion

Indicators for diffusion

  • In- and outgoing mobility

  • Shared positions (with universities, industry and others)

  • Cooperative research projects

  • Supervising of students

  • Visiting students

  • Visiting scholars (in- and outgoing)


Advantages of the scheme

Advantages of the scheme

  • Details on income

  • An extended set of variables on outcome

  • Variables on different diffusion processes


Utilising the institute monitor

Utilising the institute monitor

  • Users evaluation of applied social research at 31 research institutes

  • Analysis of financial data showed:

    • 12 institutes serving regional and local authorities

    • 19 institutes serving national authorities and international organisations

  • How is differences in customer base affecting the outputs of the institutes?


Differences in written output

Differences in written output


What purposes were r d used for

What purposes were R&D used for?

User survey shows two main categories of use:

  • Instrumental: New facts and policy support

  • Conceptual: New ideas, concepts, methods and ways of understanding

    Output from national and academically oriented institutes considered being of largest instrumental value for users


Lessons learned for indicators 1

Lessons learned for indicators 1

  • There are many ways of transferring scientific results: Broad set of transfer mechanisms should be included

  • Use of output is far from obvious: Impact can come in unexpected ways

    Ask the user of scientific results what is important before making the indicator.


Lessons learned for indicators 2

Lessons learned for indicators 2

When setting up a system of indicators, consider:

  • A broad set of types of output

  • Include at least these groups in the process:

    • Producers of output (i.e. scientists) and the ones reporting (i.e. administrators)

    • Users of output

    • Users of indicators

  • The importance of time series


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