February 24 2012
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February 24, 2012. U.S. History. 10-4: From Confederation to Constitution. Meeting called May 1787 to strengthen national government “for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation”. Shay’s Rebellion.

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February 24, 2012

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February 24 2012

February 24, 2012

U.S. History


10 4 from confederation to constitution

10-4: From Confederation to Constitution

  • Meeting called May 1787 to strengthen national government

  • “for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation”


Shay s rebellion

Shay’s Rebellion

  • Daniel Shays led a group of farmers in a rebellion against the government

  • Government under the AoC had not been strong enough to prevent it or respond to it

  • Sign they needed a stronger national government


The constitutional convention

The Constitutional Convention

  • Philadelphia

  • May 1787

  • All states sent delegates except Rhode Island

  • 74 delegates, only 55 attended sessions

  • George Washington was the best known and most respected delegate

  • Benjamin Franklin was the oldest delegate (82)


Getting started

Getting Started

  • Delegates held meetings in secret so they could openly share their views

  • Met 7 hours a day for 5-6 days a week

  • James Madison took notes on everything they discussed, debated, and decided


The task defined

The Task Defined

  • Madison proposed the Virginia Plan

    • Bicameral legislature

    • Executive

    • National judiciary

  • New Jersey Plan

    • Unicameral legislature

    • No executive or judiciary

    • Increased power to legislature


The great compromise

The Great Compromise

  • How would states be represented – proportionally or equally?

  • Compromise – bicameral legislature

    • Upper house – equal representation

    • Lower house – proportional representation


The three fifths compromise

The Three-Fifths Compromise

  • Southern states wanted to count slaves as part of their population

  • Compromise – 3 out of 5 slaves would be counted toward population

  • Tied to a clause that allowed Congress to end the slave trade in 20 years


Separation by function

Separation by Function

  • Power divided among three parts of the government

    • Legislative (pass laws)

    • Executive (enforce laws)

    • Judiciary (conduct trials, judge laws)

  • Powers of the branches were limited and balanced


The parts of the government

The Parts of the Government

  • Executive – President

    • Elected to a 4 year term

    • Elected using the Electoral College

  • Legislative – Congress

    • Bicameral – Senate and House of Representatives

    • Senators elected to 6 year terms by state legislatures

    • Representatives elected to 2 year terms by the people of the state

  • Judiciary – Courts

    • Judges appointed for life


The states and the nation

The States and the Nation

  • Created a federation – divided power between a central, federal government and the states

  • Constitution was made “the supreme law of the land”


The amending process

The Amending Process

  • Changes in the Constitution might be necessary over time

  • Process for amending Constitution was spelled out

  • Changes can be proposed and must be ratified by ¾ of the state legislatures or by the people of ¾ of the states


10 5 ratifying the constitution

10-5: Ratifying the Constitution

  • Nine states had to ratify the Constitution for it to go into effect


Federalists and anti federalists

Federalists and Anti-Federalists

  • Federalists supported the Constitution

  • Anti-Federalists opposed the Constitution


The state conventions

The State Conventions

  • Some states took longer to ratify the Constitution

  • James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton wrote 85 essays in defense of the Constitution called The Federalist Papers

  • Nine states ratified it by July 1788, putting it into effect

  • It took several years, but eventually all 13 states ratified the Constitution


Toward a bill of rights

Toward a Bill of Rights

  • Anti-Federalists believed the Constitution should list the rights of the people

  • The first Congress approved ten amendments to the Constitution known as the Bill of Rights


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