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February 24, 2012. U.S. History. 10-4: From Confederation to Constitution. Meeting called May 1787 to strengthen national government “for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation”. Shay’s Rebellion.

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february 24 2012

February 24, 2012

U.S. History

10 4 from confederation to constitution
10-4: From Confederation to Constitution
  • Meeting called May 1787 to strengthen national government
  • “for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation”
shay s rebellion
Shay’s Rebellion
  • Daniel Shays led a group of farmers in a rebellion against the government
  • Government under the AoC had not been strong enough to prevent it or respond to it
  • Sign they needed a stronger national government
the constitutional convention
The Constitutional Convention
  • Philadelphia
  • May 1787
  • All states sent delegates except Rhode Island
  • 74 delegates, only 55 attended sessions
  • George Washington was the best known and most respected delegate
  • Benjamin Franklin was the oldest delegate (82)
getting started
Getting Started
  • Delegates held meetings in secret so they could openly share their views
  • Met 7 hours a day for 5-6 days a week
  • James Madison took notes on everything they discussed, debated, and decided
the task defined
The Task Defined
  • Madison proposed the Virginia Plan
    • Bicameral legislature
    • Executive
    • National judiciary
  • New Jersey Plan
    • Unicameral legislature
    • No executive or judiciary
    • Increased power to legislature
the great compromise
The Great Compromise
  • How would states be represented – proportionally or equally?
  • Compromise – bicameral legislature
    • Upper house – equal representation
    • Lower house – proportional representation
the three fifths compromise
The Three-Fifths Compromise
  • Southern states wanted to count slaves as part of their population
  • Compromise – 3 out of 5 slaves would be counted toward population
  • Tied to a clause that allowed Congress to end the slave trade in 20 years
separation by function
Separation by Function
  • Power divided among three parts of the government
    • Legislative (pass laws)
    • Executive (enforce laws)
    • Judiciary (conduct trials, judge laws)
  • Powers of the branches were limited and balanced
the parts of the government
The Parts of the Government
  • Executive – President
    • Elected to a 4 year term
    • Elected using the Electoral College
  • Legislative – Congress
    • Bicameral – Senate and House of Representatives
    • Senators elected to 6 year terms by state legislatures
    • Representatives elected to 2 year terms by the people of the state
  • Judiciary – Courts
    • Judges appointed for life
the states and the nation
The States and the Nation
  • Created a federation – divided power between a central, federal government and the states
  • Constitution was made “the supreme law of the land”
the amending process
The Amending Process
  • Changes in the Constitution might be necessary over time
  • Process for amending Constitution was spelled out
  • Changes can be proposed and must be ratified by ¾ of the state legislatures or by the people of ¾ of the states
10 5 ratifying the constitution
10-5: Ratifying the Constitution
  • Nine states had to ratify the Constitution for it to go into effect
federalists and anti federalists
Federalists and Anti-Federalists
  • Federalists supported the Constitution
  • Anti-Federalists opposed the Constitution
the state conventions
The State Conventions
  • Some states took longer to ratify the Constitution
  • James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton wrote 85 essays in defense of the Constitution called The Federalist Papers
  • Nine states ratified it by July 1788, putting it into effect
  • It took several years, but eventually all 13 states ratified the Constitution
toward a bill of rights
Toward a Bill of Rights
  • Anti-Federalists believed the Constitution should list the rights of the people
  • The first Congress approved ten amendments to the Constitution known as the Bill of Rights
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