Design and analysis of micro solar power systems for wireless sensor networks
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Design and Analysis of Micro-Solar Power Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks. Jaein Jeong UC Berkeley, Computer Science with Xiaofan Jiang and David Culler. LGE Talk. 11-17-2006. 557 Trio node deployments in Richmond Field Station. Heliomote. Trio. Solar Energy Harvesting for WSN.

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Design and analysis of micro solar power systems for wireless sensor networks

Design and Analysis of Micro-Solar Power Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

Jaein JeongUC Berkeley, Computer Sciencewith

Xiaofan Jiang and David Culler

LGE Talk

11-17-2006


Solar energy harvesting for wsn

557 Trio node deployments Wireless Sensor Networksin Richmond Field Station

Heliomote

Trio

Solar Energy Harvesting for WSN

  • Energy harvesting is need for large-scale long-term deployment.

  • Several designs made for different requirements, but little analysis is done for an ultimate design.


Our contributions
Our Contributions Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Model for micro-solar power system.

  • Empirical and mathematical analysis on two leading designs (Heliomote and Trio).

  • Propose a design guideline for micro-solar power systems.


Organization
Organization Wireless Sensor Networks

  • System Architecture

  • Model for Each Component

    • Load: Sensor Node

    • External Environment

    • Solar Collector

    • Energy Storage

  • Comparative Study

    • Solar-Collector Operation

    • Energy flow and Energy efficiency

  • Conclusion


System architecture
System Architecture Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Evaluation Metrics

    • Effsolar = Pon / PmaxP

    • Effsystem = (EL1+ … + ELn + Econs) / Esol


Load sensor node estimating node consumption
Load (Sensor Node): Wireless Sensor NetworksEstimating Node Consumption

  • Energy consumption with radio comm:

    • Iest = R*Iawake + (1-R) * Isleep


External environment estimating solar radiation
External Environment: Wireless Sensor NetworksEstimating Solar Radiation

  • Statistical Model

  • Mathematical Model


Solar collector solar cell characteristics
Solar Collector: Wireless Sensor NetworksSolar-cell Characteristics

  • Solar-cell I-V curve

  • Regulator


Energy stroage
Energy Stroage Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Requirements:

    • Lifetime, Capacity, Current draw, Size/Weight

  • Types of storage:

    • NiMH: capacity and cost

    • Li+: energy density and capacity

    • Supercap: lifetime

  • Storage configuration:

    • Combination of battery and supercap provides good lifetime as well as capacity.

  • Charging mechanisms:

    • HW vs. SW, Complexity vs. Efficiency


Comparative study solar collector operation
Comparative Study: Wireless Sensor NetworksSolar-Collector Operation

  • Compare Pon with PmaxP

    • solar-cell operating point

    • maximum possible value

  • Trio

    • Pon – PmaxP = 4.83mW (5.3%)

  • Heliomote

    • Pon – PmaxP = -16.75mW (-23.2%)


Solar collector operation trio
Solar-Collector Operation: Trio Wireless Sensor Networks


Solar collector operation heliomote
Solar-Collector Operation: Heliomote Wireless Sensor Networks


Comparative study energy flow and efficiency
Comparative Study: Wireless Sensor NetworksEnergy flow and efficiency

  • Compare mote consumption (Econs) and stored energy (Ebat and Ecap) with solar energy income (Esol).

  • Trio: up to 33.4%, Heliomote: up to 14.6%


Energy flow and efficiency heliomote energy loss due to regulator
Energy flow and efficiency (Heliomote) Wireless Sensor Networks- Energy loss due to regulator

  • Solar energy income: 08:00 to 17:00.

  • Clipped after 12:00.

  • Two-third loss in daily energy income.


Insights from analysis
Insights from analysis Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Sensor node:

    • Dynamic duty-cycling for year-round operation.

    • Photo resistor or Coulomb meter for estimating season.

  • Environment:

    • Setting inclination is needed for higher solar radiation.

  • Solar collector:

    • Operating point for usable output is narrow.

    • Buffering solar-cell with supercap with correct charging and regulator parameters provides close match to maximum output power.

  • Energy storage:

    • Lifetime is primary objective.

    • Multi-level storage improves lifetime.


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