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Design and Analysis of Micro-Solar Power Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks. Jaein Jeong UC Berkeley, Computer Science with Xiaofan Jiang and David Culler. LGE Talk. 11-17-2006. 557 Trio node deployments in Richmond Field Station. Heliomote. Trio. Solar Energy Harvesting for WSN.

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design and analysis of micro solar power systems for wireless sensor networks

Design and Analysis of Micro-Solar Power Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks

Jaein JeongUC Berkeley, Computer Sciencewith

Xiaofan Jiang and David Culler

LGE Talk

11-17-2006

solar energy harvesting for wsn

557 Trio node deploymentsin Richmond Field Station

Heliomote

Trio

Solar Energy Harvesting for WSN
  • Energy harvesting is need for large-scale long-term deployment.
  • Several designs made for different requirements, but little analysis is done for an ultimate design.
our contributions
Our Contributions
  • Model for micro-solar power system.
  • Empirical and mathematical analysis on two leading designs (Heliomote and Trio).
  • Propose a design guideline for micro-solar power systems.
organization
Organization
  • System Architecture
  • Model for Each Component
    • Load: Sensor Node
    • External Environment
    • Solar Collector
    • Energy Storage
  • Comparative Study
    • Solar-Collector Operation
    • Energy flow and Energy efficiency
  • Conclusion
system architecture
System Architecture
  • Evaluation Metrics
    • Effsolar = Pon / PmaxP
    • Effsystem = (EL1+ … + ELn + Econs) / Esol
load sensor node estimating node consumption
Load (Sensor Node):Estimating Node Consumption
  • Energy consumption with radio comm:
    • Iest = R*Iawake + (1-R) * Isleep
external environment estimating solar radiation
External Environment:Estimating Solar Radiation
  • Statistical Model
  • Mathematical Model
solar collector solar cell characteristics
Solar Collector:Solar-cell Characteristics
  • Solar-cell I-V curve
  • Regulator
energy stroage
Energy Stroage
  • Requirements:
    • Lifetime, Capacity, Current draw, Size/Weight
  • Types of storage:
    • NiMH: capacity and cost
    • Li+: energy density and capacity
    • Supercap: lifetime
  • Storage configuration:
    • Combination of battery and supercap provides good lifetime as well as capacity.
  • Charging mechanisms:
    • HW vs. SW, Complexity vs. Efficiency
comparative study solar collector operation
Comparative Study:Solar-Collector Operation
  • Compare Pon with PmaxP
    • solar-cell operating point
    • maximum possible value
  • Trio
    • Pon – PmaxP = 4.83mW (5.3%)
  • Heliomote
    • Pon – PmaxP = -16.75mW (-23.2%)
comparative study energy flow and efficiency
Comparative Study:Energy flow and efficiency
  • Compare mote consumption (Econs) and stored energy (Ebat and Ecap) with solar energy income (Esol).
  • Trio: up to 33.4%, Heliomote: up to 14.6%
energy flow and efficiency heliomote energy loss due to regulator
Energy flow and efficiency (Heliomote)- Energy loss due to regulator
  • Solar energy income: 08:00 to 17:00.
  • Clipped after 12:00.
  • Two-third loss in daily energy income.
insights from analysis
Insights from analysis
  • Sensor node:
    • Dynamic duty-cycling for year-round operation.
    • Photo resistor or Coulomb meter for estimating season.
  • Environment:
    • Setting inclination is needed for higher solar radiation.
  • Solar collector:
    • Operating point for usable output is narrow.
    • Buffering solar-cell with supercap with correct charging and regulator parameters provides close match to maximum output power.
  • Energy storage:
    • Lifetime is primary objective.
    • Multi-level storage improves lifetime.
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