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Delivery of Maternal and Newborn Care Services in Africa: What are the facilities telling us?. Koye Oyerinde MD, MPH, FAAP Symposium on Maternal Mortality, Dakar. The Averting Maternal Death and Disability Program - AMDD. Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City.

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Delivery of maternal and newborn care services in africa what are the facilities telling us

Delivery of Maternal and Newborn Care Services in Africa: What are the facilities telling us?

Koye Oyerinde MD, MPH, FAAP

Symposium on Maternal Mortality, Dakar


The averting maternal death and disability program amdd
The Averting Maternal Death and Disability Program - AMDD

  • Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York City.

  • Help to strengthen heath systems to provide emergency care for all women experiencing life-threatening obstetric complications.

  • Conduct research and policy analysis, provide technical expertise, and advocate for solutions

  • Collaborate with global, regional, and local institutions – including NGOs & academic centers


The alliance
The Alliance

  • Memorandum of Understanding signed June 2008 between UNICEF, UNFPA, AMDD

  • Alliance supports country plans for the strengthening of EmONC service delivery as a strategy for attaining MDGs 4 and 5.

  • WHO collaborates on alliance activities at country and regional level.


Needs assessment overview
Needs Assessment Overview

  • The EmONC Needs Assessments are facility based cross-sectional studies of the capacity of a health system to provide health services to mothers and newborns

  • Main focus – health system.

    • Accessibility/Coverage/Equity

    • 24 hour services

    • Human Resources

    • Equipment and Supplies

    • Infrastructure

    • Aspects of quality of care


Emonc needs assessments
EmONC Needs Assessments

Completed – pre-2005 and/or sub-national

Completed – post-2005 and national

Ongoing

Planned

Current as of December 2010


The needs assessment process
The Needs Assessment Process

Phase III: From Data to Action

  • The AMDD team:

  • provides customized technical support and training through these phases

  • works remotely and in-country to support the MOH to conduct the assessments.

  • Conducting the Needs Assessment

Phase II: Conducting the Needs Assessment

Phase I: Advocacy and Planning



Low no of facilities offering emonc signal functions
Low no. of facilities offering AfricaEmONC signal functions

The recommended number of EmONC facilities is 5 per 500,000, at least one of which is Comprehensive (CEmONC).

Coverage is defined as available EmONC facilities as a percentage of recommended EmONC facilities. There may be further disparities between urban and rural areas.


Low no of emonc facilities
Low no. of EmONC facilities Africa

  • Better CEmOC coverage than BEmOC coverage

    • But CEmOC requires BEmOC to function properly


Low utilization
Low utilization Africa

  • Institutional delivery rate:

  • Variety within and among countries:

    • Ethiopia 7%,

    • Madagascar 19%

    • Sierra Leone 10%

    • Higher rates in urban areas

  • Met need:

  • % of expected complications that are treated in EmOC facilities. Target: 100%


Missing signal functions
Missing signal functions Africa

  • MVA and AVD are most commonly missing SFs, especially at the health center level.

  • Sierra Leone, 2008: Proportion of hospitals and CHCs by signal functions performed in last 3 months


Low hr availability
Low HR availability Africa

  • Sierra Leone: TBAs and MCH aides conduct most deliveries, especially in health centers. SL has started new midwifery education programs since the NA

  • Madagascar: has 99 obstetricians, needs 72 more to reach norms.

  • Ethiopia: only 35% of the midwives targeted in HSDP III 2010 had been trained, 26% of medical doctors, and 16% of the health officers.

Ethiopia: % of HCs staffed with at least 2 midwives and 1 health officer, by region


Inadequate commodities and supplies
Inadequate commodities and supplies Africa

Percentages of facilities with:


Stock outs
Stock outs Africa

Ethiopia: causes of delay of supplies in hospitals

‘stock out at

central store’ (41%)

‘financial problems’

(26%)

‘administrative

difficulties’ (15%)

Madagascar: 73% of hospitals and 65% of healthcentershad not had a stock out of oxytocin, ergometrine, or atropine in the 12 monthsbefore the study.


Limited data collection
Limited data collection Africa

  • HMIS indicators

    • Often important indicators are not collected

      • When collected the data are unused for planning

    • HMIS data often considered unreliable

      • A common outcome of the Needs Assessment is HMIS revision.

  • Data collection at front-lines

    • Facility registers often unclear and incomplete

    • 51% of health centers in Ethiopia had drug and inventory registers


Fee for service
Fee for Service Africa

  • Fees are often considered a barrier, especially for the poorest.

  • “Some women when told to go to the hospital would not because they do not have money; so they have problems during delivery” - Sierra Leone Needs Assessment, qualitative data:

  • Sierra Leone made health services for pregnant and lactating mothers and children under 5 free in spring 2010

    • Initial reports suggest a phenomenal increase in utilization; thus raising concerns for potential fall in quality of care


Socio cultural barriers
Socio-cultural barriers Africa

  • NA results are made more meaningful when combined with social science research

  • Socio-cultural barriers – including abusive / disrespectful care - have been shown to delay utilization and limit benefits derived from the health system



Conclusion
Conclusion Africa

  • Needs Assessments have potential to surface gaps and indicate ways forward

  • A systems science/health systems perspective is critical – we need strong health systems to support women during labor.


Conclusion1
Conclusion Africa

  • Health facilities in Africa are saying:

    • Not enough, not the right type and not in the right place

    • Not adequately staffed, not with the right skills

    • Not adequately stocked, not with the right tools, drugs, and supplies


Many thanks merci beaucoup
Many thanks! AfricaMerci beaucoup!

Further resources available from the AMDD website: www.amddprogram .org


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