Tobacco prevention and cessation in pediatric settings
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Tobacco Prevention and Cessation in Pediatric Settings. Jonathan D. Klein, MD, MPH Golisano Children’s Hospital at Strong and the American Academy of Pediatrics Center for Child Health Research University of Rochester Rochester, NY. Center for Child Health Research Mission.

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Tobacco prevention and cessation in pediatric settings

Tobacco Prevention and Cessation in Pediatric Settings

Jonathan D. Klein, MD, MPHGolisano Children’s Hospital at Strong

and the

American Academy of Pediatrics

Center for Child Health Research

University of Rochester Rochester, NY

Center for child health research mission

Center for Child Health Research Mission

Improve the health and functioning of children by enhancing the quantity, quality, and utilization of research

How the center will address child health

How the Center Will Address Child Health

  • Identify what is known, not being addressed

  • Identify critical questions and gaps

  • Develop and implement strategies both to:

    • increase our knowledge base

    • better use that knowledge to shape social and clinical policies and practices

Center structure

Center Structure

  • Multi-institutional, multidisciplinary

  • Center of Center in Rochester, New York

  • PROS Network - Mort Wasserman, MD, Director, U of Vermont; core staff at AAP headquarters

  • Functional Outcomes Project - Lynn Olson, PhD, Director; core staff at AAP headquarters

  • Consortia members and researchers on various projects located at universities nationwide

Critical questions

Critical Questions

  • What are the most important research questions, that if answered, would improve

    • Children'shealth and development?

    • Adulthealth, functioning and longevity?

  • How to facilitate answering these questions?

  • How to help research be translated into social policy and clinical practice to improve children's health?

Tobacco prevention and cessation in pediatric settings










Tobacco prevention and cessation in pediatric settings

Studying Social Determinants and Outcomes of Health

Assessing Child Health Policy and Practice

Improved Child


Increasing and Synthesizing Knowledge


Children and tobacco

Children and tobacco

  • 3 million adolescents smoke

  • 2600/day start

  • 1/3rd will become addicted, smoke through adulthood

  • 60% of smokers started before age 14

  • ETS is a major heath risk for children

Past 30 day smoking 1975 2002

Past 30 Day Smoking, 1975-2002

Adapted from Johnston, et al., 2001

Tobacco prevention and cessation in pediatric settings


  • Social influences

    • Friends

    • Parents

      • Access/availability of cigarettes

      • attitude toward smoking

    • Media

  • Personality

    • Sensation seeking

    • Rebelliousness

    • Poor school performance

Tobacco marketing

Tobacco Marketing

  • Annual spending to promote tobacco = more than half the NIH budget

  • Advertising

    • Targeted to youth

  • Non-advertising commercial speech

    • Product placement

    • Clothing, gear

    • Sponsorships, broadcast media

    • Candy look-alike products

Exposure to tobacco use in movies and smoking among 5th 8th grader

Exposure to Tobacco Use in Movies and Smoking Among 5th-8th grader

8th Grade

7th Grade

6th Grade

5th Grade

Adapted from Sargent, DiFranza, 2003

Youth and nicotine

Youth and Nicotine

  • Adolescents more than adults:

    • become dependent

    • progress to daily smoking

    • smoke more heavily as adults

    • have difficulty with quitting prior to smoking 100 cigarettes

Adolescent smokers

Adolescent Smokers

  • Know they are addicted

  • Want to quit

  • Do not think there are resources to help

  • 75% have thought about quitting

  • 64% have made a quit attempt

  • Clinicians feel unprepared to help

Incidence of initial symptoms of nicotine dependence

Incidence of Initial Symptoms of Nicotine Dependence

Adapted from DiFranza, 2002

Issues for primary and secondary prevention

Issues for primary and secondary prevention

  • “Social inoculation” = effective prevention

  • Prevention does not work for cessation

  • School /social environment roles

  • Harm reduction vs. abstinence strategies

  • Brief office interventions and referrals

Primary care interventions

Primary care interventions

  • Health care cessation counseling interventions are effective for adults

  • Pediatric and adolescent guidelines recommend screening & counseling

  • Adolescents want to quit but do not think of getting assistance

  • Adolescents use internet resources for health information

Pediatric interventions

Pediatric interventions

  • Most (>90%) clinicians report asking about tobacco

  • Many report assessing motivation to quit, and discussing health risks

  • Few provide handouts, set quit dates, or plan smoking-related follow-up

  • < 25% of patients report having received counseling

Primary care

Primary care

  • Adolescents use preventive care

  • 70+% report well care visits

  • Nationally, almost half do not have an opportunity to talk privately with their clinician

  • 39% girls, 24% boys report having been too embarrassed to discuss a topic

Did practices deliver interventions

Did Practices Deliver Interventions?

QLater QNow

Did you and your doctor 88 92p<.05

discuss cigarettes/smoking?

Did your doctor ask if you 87 93p<.001


If smoke, did your doctor 63 76p<.0005

ask if you want to quit?

If smoke, did your doctor 18 47p<.0001

hand you anything to help stop?

Other evidence

Other evidence?

  • In a 2002 review, evidence for teen cessation programs is good,

    • especially school-based, motivation enhancement programs.

    • no successful brief intervention trials in primary care for adolescent cessation.

  • One successful cessation study in 2003 with adolescents referred to an intensive expert counseling ‘system’ after brief primary care advice (OR=2.43) (Hollis et al.)

  • Policy interventions work

Gottaquit evaluation

GottaQuit Evaluation

  • Ads have reached 94% of Monroe County teens

  • Youth who smoke relate to the characters, the themes of addiction and wanting to quit

  • 75% of adolescent smokers in Monroe County wanted to quit, and many tried in the past year

  • Only 40% of smokers had ever been proofed

  • 27% of smokers (vs 4% of non-smokers) had visited, mostly for help quitting

What do we do now

What do we do now?

  • Best practice recommendations

    • Policy changes

    • Clinical interventions

    • Public health adjuncts

  • More studies

  • Implications for education

Best practices in tobacco control

Best Practices in Tobacco Control

  • Increase price of tobacco

  • Smoking bans and restrictions

  • Availability of treatment for addiction

    • Reduce patient costs for treatment

    • Provider reminder systems

    • Telephone/web counseling and support

  • Mass media campaigns

Policy school curriculum

Policy - School curriculum

  • At least 5 session /year over 2 years

  • Should include

    • Social influences

    • Short term health effects

    • Refusal skills

  • NOT self-esteem or delay based

  • Be aware of dilution and confusion strategies by tobacco interests

  • School policies should reinforce goals

Policy community activism

Policy - Community activism

  • Age of sale enforcement

  • Advertising limitations

  • Public smoke exposure reduction

  • Awareness of impact of preemptive efforts

  • Reducing social acceptability of smoking

Pediatricians in practice

Pediatricians in Practice

  • Reimbursement for Providers

    • CPT coding, payment

  • Certification of competency

  • Media for Patients

    • Ads, adjuncts, educational materials

  • Education for Providers and staff

    • Phrmacotherapy guides, resource lists

  • Training/CME

  • Practice public health service 5 a s

    Practice - Public Health Service 5 A’s

    • Ask - If patient smokes

    • Advise- Every patient to quit

    • Assess - Readiness to quit

    • Assist - In quitting and finding services

    • Arrange - For cessation services and follow up

    Issues for pediatric practice

    Issues for Pediatric Practice

    • Prenatal Smoking

    • Environmental Smoke/Early Childhood

    • School Age Intervention

    • Adolescent Intervention

    Pediatricians in practice1

    Pediatricians in Practice:

    • Reimbursement

      • Better CPT coding for tobacco counseling

      • Maine Medicaid pays $20/visit for tobacco counseling up to 3 per year

      • PA Medicaid pays $15/visit after MD training completed

    • Education for providers

      • Training/CME -- (Certification?)

    • Adjuncts/Media for Patients

    Pre postpartum messages

    Pre/Postpartum Messages

    • Intervene with women and men during pregnancy and after delivery

    • Postpartum health message should focus on secondhand smoke

    • Parents should smoke outside

    Early childhood 0 5

    Early Childhood (0-5)

    • Goal: Prevent smoke exposure (ETS)

    • Ask: About exposure

    • Advise: Parents to quit, limit exposure

      - Link to child’s health

    • Assess: Motivation to change

    • Assist:

      - Provide self-help, set quit dates

      - Consider Rx, referral

    • Arrange:

      - Reinforcement at each visit

    School age 5 12 intervention

    School Age (5-12) Intervention

    • Goal: Prevent the onset of smoking

    • Ask: Experimentation and knowledge

    • Advise: Children and parents

      • To quit if smoking

      • Link to short term consequences

      • “Inoculate”with awareness of smoking candy/toys/gear as socially acceptable

  • Assess: Motivation to change

  • School age intervention

    School Age Intervention

    • Assist:

      • If experimenting - cessation

      • Develop refusal skills

      • Show how tobacco ads mislead

      • Reinforce abstinence

    • Arrange:

      • Frequent follow-up for experimenters

    Adolescent intervention

    Adolescent Intervention

    • Goal:

      • Prevent onset and promote cessation

    • Ask

      • About friend’s use

      • About patterns of use

      • About school programs

      • Reassure about confidentiality

    • Assess:

      • Motivation and readiness

    Adolescent intervention1

    Adolescent intervention

    • Advise

      • To quit for short term reasons

        • Athletic capacity, cost, smell, etc.

      • Reinforce non-use

    • Assist

      • Set quit dates

      • Provide self-help materials, websites

      • Encourage problem-solving, refusal skills, activities

      • Consider pharmacotherapy

    • •Arrange

      • --1-2 week follow-up after quit attempts

    Assessing nicotine dependence

    Assessing Nicotine Dependence

    • Have you ever tried to quit, but couldn’t?

    • Have you ever felt like you were addicted to tobacco?

    • Do you ever have strong cravings to smoke?

    • Is it hard to keep from smoking where you are not supposed to, like school?

    • Do you:

      • find it hard to concentrate

      • feel more irritable?

      • feel nervous, restless, or anxious … because you couldn’t smoke?

    Training and certification

    Training and Certification

    • Training programs

      • Model curriculum

      • RRC, ACGME required competencies

      • Advocacy curriculum

  • Quality Assurance

    • Modules - like ADHD Toolkit

  • Board Certification competency

  • CME on tobacco and on screening and motivational interviewing

  • Curriculum challenges

    Curriculum challenges

    • Leadership in primary care settings

      • Residents and medical students

  • Community practitioners

  • Support from academic leaders

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