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Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Update for AACP Council of Deans. ACPE Board of Directors and Executive Staff AACP Interim Meeting ▪ Savannah, Georgia February 28, 2011. ACPE Board and Staff Speakers. Heidi M. Anderson , PhD ACPE President (University of Kentucky)

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Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Update for AACP Council of Deans

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Accreditation council for pharmacy education acpe update for aacp council of deans l.jpg

Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Update for AACP Council of Deans

ACPE Board of Directors and Executive Staff

AACP Interim Meeting ▪ Savannah, Georgia

February 28, 2011


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ACPE Board and Staff Speakers

  • Heidi M. Anderson, PhD

    ACPE President (University of Kentucky)

  • Robert S. Beardsley, RPh, PhD

    ACPE Vice President (University of Maryland)

  • Michael A. Moné, RPh, JD, FAPhA

    ACPE Secretary/Treasurer (Cardinal Health)

  • Stephanie F. Gardner, PharmD, EdD

    ACPE Board of Directors (University of Arkansas)

  • Peter H. Vlasses, PharmD, DSc (Hon.), BCPS, FCCP ACPE Executive Director

  • Jeffrey W. Wadelin, PhDACPE Associate Executive Director, and Director, Professional Degree Program Accreditation


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Purpose of Discussion

Part of ACPE’s ongoing effort to engage in a collaborative dialogue with stakeholders

Convey and clarify information on activities, policies and procedures

Respond to topics submitted by deans

Discuss opportunities to improve ACPE’s interactions with schools/colleges


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ACPE Communications AssessmentOctober – December 2010

Key Issues Identified

  • Process vs. Outcomes Assessments

  • Quality vs. Quantity

  • Transparency

  • Consistency in Accreditation Review

  • Collaborative Approach


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Process vs. Outcomes Assessment: Feedback Received

Concerns about the evidence-base of some standards and guidelines

Accreditation requirements are resource intensive for colleges and schools

ACPE’s processes limit flexibility and innovation


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Process vs. Outcomes Assessment

  • Accreditation is outcomes focused; process and structure are linked to outcomes

  • ACPE is committed to assuring quality in all accredited pharmacy education programs

  • “What does ‘good’ look like” – collaborative effort of practice organizations, AACP, and ACPE

    “Accreditation is a trust-based, standards-based,

    evidenced-based, judgment-based, peer-based

    process.” —CHEA, 2009


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ACPE Stakeholder ConferenceSeptember 12–14, 2012Atlanta, GA

Advancing Quality in Pharmacy Education: Charting Accreditation’s Future

Invitational consensus-seeking conference

In collaboration with a broad array of leaders in pharmacy, health care, and education leaders


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ACPE Stakeholder ConferenceObjectives

Examine competencies that are currently required of pharmacists and competencies that will be required in the future

Expand evidence-based practices in assessing the quality of educational programs

Inform standards, guidelines, and process quality improvement initiatives


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Dean-Submitted Question

S2007 Guidelines 2.0

Please discuss the “effective date” and when schools will be held accountable for new guidelines during reviews.


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S2007 Guidelines 2.0

  • Guidelines 2.0 are in effect

    • Site teams will evaluate starting Fall 2011 cycle

    • Provides clarification and/or quality improvement additions

    • Reflects ACPE Board of Directors policy decisions

    • 15 new “must” statements (many have previously been communicated)

  • AAMS will be updated by April 30, 2011

  • Rubric v4.0 will be released by April 30 and will provide an overview of key changes

    • Effective on July 1

  • Self-studies in progress that are using other versions of the rubric must address the changes in the text of their self-study submissions


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Dean-Submitted Questions

Accreditation Timeframes

  • Will ACPE consider modifying the accreditation cycle by lengthening terms (e.g., to 7–8 years)?

  • Will ACPE consider reducing the number of reports by increasing time between interim reporting?


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ACPE Subcommittee to Analyze Accreditation Cycle and Process

Subcommittee will analyze accreditation cycle and process for colleges and schools of pharmacy

Comprised of 4 ACPE Board members, 2 deans (AACP-appointed), ACPE staff member

Preliminary report to ACPE Board – June 2011


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Issues at the Intersection of Quality and Quantity:Feedback Received

  • Is ACPE adequately addressing quality in new schools and/or expanded programs?

  • Is quality within experiential education impacted? Adequate sites and preceptors?

  • Is quality of faculty and academic leadership diminished?


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Programs with Accreditation Status(n = 124)

Full Accreditation Status: 99

Programs that have graduated students

Candidate Accreditation Status: 16

Programs with students enrolled but have not yet produced graduates or have graduates and have not addressed all the accreditation standards

•Pre-Candidate Accreditation Status: 9

Programs that have not yet enrolled students or are in their first year of classes

Accredited PharmD Programs*

* Inclusive of January 2011 Board Actions


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Distance Campus Expansions

  • 26 programs have distance campuses*

    • 19 are public and 7 are private

  • 3 programs are in the process of being evaluated to open a distance campus

  • 5 programs have branch/distance campuses out of state

(* Distance campus = delivery of didactic curriculum to/from site)


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Pharmacy School Graduation Trends

Pharmacy school graduates 2011–2014 projected based on current enrollment and ACPE-estimated attrition

Number of Graduates

Source: AACP Fall 2010 Data and ACPE February 2011 Estimates


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Fact Check―

Are new colleges and schools of pharmacy primarily responsible for this increase in pharmacy graduates since 2003?


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Increase in Pharmacy Graduates Since 2003


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Increase in Pharmacy Graduates Since 2003


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ACPE Monitoring of Pharmacy Programs – Quality and Resources

  • Comprehensive and focused accreditation reviews

  • Annual monitoring metrics (e.g., NAPLEX, enrollments, progression/graduation, dismissals, withdrawals, attrition)

  • AACP standardized surveys (e.g., graduating students, faculty, preceptors, and alumni)

  • Launch of Assessment and Accreditation Management System (AAMS) with AACP

  • Identification of noteworthy practices


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NAPLEX Passing Rate for First-Time Candidates 2004–2010Pre-1995 versus Post-1995 Programs


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2010 NAPLEX Passing Rate Spread for Pre-1995 versus Post-1995 Programs

n = 12

n = 10

n= 23

Percentage of Programs

n = 6

n = 2

n = 3

n = 1

n = 1

n = 1


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The PharmD Program prepared me to:

Communicate with patients and caregivers

Gather and use specific information to identify patient medication-related problems

Develop a patient care plan to manage each medication-related problem

Work with a health care team to implement the patient care plan

Manage the system of medication use to affect patients

Work with other stakeholders and resolve problems related to medication use


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2010 Faculty and Preceptor Survey Curriculum Responses

(Faculty N = 2,604 / Preceptor N = 8,170)

The PharmD Program prepared students to:

Develop and use patient-specific care plans

Efficiently manage a patient-centered pharmacy practice

Develop disease management programs

Manage the system of medication use

Promote the availability of health promotion and disease prevention initiatives

Communicate with patients, caregivers, and other members of the interprofessional health care team


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Required Evaluations & On-site Visits for ACPE Accreditation of New Programs

New School Process

Draft Application On-site Consultation (1 staff member)

Paper review of draft application (team of 4)

Evaluation for Precandidate Status (team of 4-5)

Evaluation for Candidate Status (team of 4-5)

Evaluation for Continuation of Candidate Status (team of 2-3)

Over 7 years: a New Program is evaluated by 24–36 individuals

Consideration of Full Status (team of 4-5)

Evaluation for Continuation of Initial Full Status

(team of 2-3)


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New School Process—Initial Contact to Possible Approval of On-Site

Founding Dean meets with ACPE

Representatives meet with ACPE Board

Recruit leadership team

Founding Dean

hired and on-site

Draft application report and fee due January 15

Final application report April 1

Initial expression of interest by University

School

Actions

± 9 months

ACPE

Actions

On-site consultation by ACPE staff

Informal consultation with ACPE

Informal consultation with ACPE

Application reviewed by Application Review Team

On-site evaluation approved by Board at June Meeting


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New School Process—Approval of On-site to Candidate Status

Admit first class in Fall

Teleconference with ACPE Board

Submit progress report

Submit progress report

Teleconference with ACPE Board

Meet with ACPE Board

School

Actions

1 Year

1 Year

ACPE

Actions

Pre-Candidate Status affirmed at June Meeting

Pre-Candidate Status granted at January meeting

On-site evaluation approved by Board at June Meeting

Candidate Status (2 Years) granted at June meeting

Comprehensive on-site evaluation in Fall

Comprehensive on-site evaluation in Spring


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New School Process—Candidate to Initial Full Status

Teleconference

with ACPE Board

Graduation of First Class

Teleconference

with ACPE Board

Teleconference

with ACPE Board

Submit progress

report(s)

Submit progress

report(s)

School

Actions

2 Years

2 Years

ACPE

Actions

Continuation of Candidate Status (2 Years) granted at June meeting

Full Accreditation (2 Years initial term) granted by Board at June Meeting

Candidate Status

(2 Years) granted at June meeting

Focused on-site evaluation in Spring

Comprehensive on-site evaluation in Spring


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New School Process—Initial Full to Continuation of Full Accreditation

Submit progress

report(s)

Submit Comprehensive Self-Study Report

Teleconference

with ACPE Board

Submit progress

report(s)

School

Actions

4 Years

2 Years

ACPE

Actions

Full Accreditation (2 Years initial term) granted by Board? June Meeting

Continuation of Initial Full Accreditation?

June Meeting

Comprehensive on-site evaluation in Spring

Focused on-site evaluation in Spring

Continuation of Full Accreditation?

June Meeting


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Site Team Composition

Individuals from curriculum and assessment committees and with experiential oversight are preferred

Dean

Pharmaceutical sciences

Pharmacy practice

Practitioner not affiliated with the school

Staff member from ACPE

Board or former Board member (based on availability)


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29 Point Threshold Rubric

http://www.acpe-accredit.org/pdf/Threshold_Document.pdf


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Dean-Submitted Question

Proportion of Aspiring Schools Accredited

  • What is the percentage of colleges and schools who have applied for precandidate status since 2000 and have achieved this status?


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Proportion of Aspiring Schools Accredited

  • Programs have investigated establishment of a pharmacy program with ACPE but approximately 10 did not pursue application

  • 40 programs were evaluated for preaccreditation

    • 3 programs were not authorized for a precandidate visit

    • 16 programs delayed at either precandidate, candidate, or full accreditation (or a combination of these) at some point in the process


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Dean-Submitted Questions

Quality/Quantity of Clinical Sites

  • How will the shortage of quality experiential sites be addressed by ACPE for new and existing schools?

  • How will ACPE deal with schools that have “lost sites” to new programs?

  • Is ACPE considering some sort of public opportunity for comment on the "impact" of establishing a new school or is this just a rumor?


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APPE Preceptor Data(N=39 programs,* F2008–F2010)

*Existing or new schools about to produce graduates


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APPE Preceptor Data(N=39 programs,* F2008–F2010)

*Existing or new schools about to produce graduates


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Experiential Education Standards –Evaluation Since S2007 (N=49 programs)


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Dean-Submitted Questions

Quality/Quantity – Manpower

Will ACPE extend scope to include applicant schools’ assessment of manpower, need, quality of applicant pool, impact on clinical and other resources?

Discuss ACPE position on the oversupply of pharmacists in certain parts of the country.

Please project anticipated changes in supply within the next 5 years with proliferation of schools.


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Dean-Submitted Questions

Quality/Quantity – Manpower

  • Please discuss ACPE's interpretation (or use) of the Pharmacist Demand Survey (ADI) by Kathy Knapp

    • Does ACPE utilize this survey to help determine if a new schools application is appropriate?


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Manpower Issues Cannot Be Considered in Accreditation

Accreditation is designed to advance quality – not restrict the market

Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 prohibits restraint of competition

PharmD is a nationally recruited applicant pool with national employment opportunities


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Accreditation and Competition

  • Accreditation decisions may affect the marketplace

  • Accreditation decisions are based strictly on compliance with the standards

    • Cannot consider the effect on the marketplace

  • Consideration of the effect on the marketplace in making accreditation decisions could subject ACPE to prosecution under antitrust laws and, potentially, jeopardize ACPE’s recognition by the U.S. DOE


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Fact Check―

Do the accrediting bodies for other health professions dictate the quantity of schools or numbers of graduates?


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Growth Trends in Education Among Other Health Professions


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Dean-Submitted Question

Quality in Accelerated PharmD Programs

  • Has ACPE discussed a national unified curriculum such that some programs with accelerated programs are not allowed to “degrade pharmacy education?”

    • "Five-year PharmD" in some new schools

    • Curriculum structuring accelerates the professional and pre-professional years: morphing of 5 year BS into 4 year PharmD


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NAPLEX Passing Rate for First-Time Candidates 2008 – 2010Three-Year vs. Four-Year Programs


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Dean-Submitted Questions

Questions About Finances

  • Please discuss how ACPE's financial resources are made transparent to the public.

  • Please summarize the revenues derived from schools and elsewhere and summarize major categories of expenses.

    • Schools are belt-tightening. What about ACPE?

  • Are there ways to reduce accreditation expenses?


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Dean-Submitted Questions

Questions About Finances

ACPE has "recommended" that some programs add personnel (increasing school’s expenses without generating additional funding). Is ACPE sensitive to the critical financial standing of some institutions secondary to state budget cuts and unfunded mandates?

Discuss the issue of a dues increase. Is this on the horizon?


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Summary of Discussion

ACPE is committed to assuring quality in pharmacy education and encouraging innovation

ACPE wants to continue to engage in a collaborative dialogue

ACPE is committed to working with the profession to ensure standards and guidelines are reflective of emerging evidence and practice needs


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Summary of Discussion

Expansion in the number of pharmacy school graduates is a result of growth in both existing and new programs

Marketplace effects cannot be considered in accreditation decisions

Accreditation decisions are based strictly on compliance with the standards

ACPE is focused on careful use of resources and ensuring good stewardship of Council funds


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“A coach is someone who can give correction without causing resentment.”

―John Wooden

ACPE’s desire is to be a coach

to colleges and schools of pharmacy


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